2020-07-16 - Nº 272
Esta é a Newsletter Nº 272 que se apresenta com o mesmo formato que as anteriores. Se gostar da Newsletter partilhe-a!
Todas as Newsletters encontram-se indexadas no link.
Esta Newsletter tem os seguintes tópicos:
Faz hoje anos que nascia, em 1704, o engenheiro mecânico inglês John Kay. Ele foi o inventor do tear de força com carro voador, patenteado em 1733, o que foi um passo importante para a tecelagem automática. Kay colocou caixas de transporte em cada lado do tear, conectadas por uma prancha longa, conhecida como corrida de transporte. Por meio de cordas presas a um pino de picking, um único tecelão, usando uma mão, pode fazer com que a lançadeira seja empurrada para frente e para trás através do tear de uma caixa de lançadeira para a outra. Um tecelão usando o carro voador de Kay poderia produzir tecidos muito mais largos em velocidades mais rápidas do que antes.
Faz também hoje anos que nascia, em 1888, o Físico holandês Frits Zernike. Ele recebeu o Prémio Nobel de Física em 1953 pela sua invenção do microscópio de contraste de fase, um instrumento que permite o estudo da estrutura celular interna sem a necessidade de manchar e, assim, matar as células. Além de sua capacidade de tornar visível objectos microscópicos e incolores, também é possível detectar pequenas falhas em espelhos, lentes de telescópio e outros instrumentos indispensáveis à pesquisa. Nesse sentido, a placa de fase de Zernike serve como um indicador que localiza e mede pequenas irregularidades da superfície numa fracção do comprimento de onda da luz.
Faz igualmente hoje anos que nascia, em 1906, o inventor norte-americano Reynold B. Johnson. Ele é conhecido como sendo o pai do disco rígido. Durante o período em que foi funcionário da IBM ainda foi responsável por outras invenções que incluem equipamentos automáticos de pontuação de testes e a fita de cassete de vídeo.
Faz também hoje anos que nascia, em 1926, o Bioquímico americano Irwin Rose. Ele recebeu uma parte do Prémio Nobel de Química de 2004 (com os israelitas Aaron Ciechanover e Avram Hershko) por descobrir o papel da proteína ubiquitina nas células. Esta pequena molécula de proteína liga-se a outras proteínas, marcando-as para remoção, que são reconhecidas pelos proteassomas da célula. Estas estruturas são as unidades de eliminação de resíduos da célula, onde as proteínas são quebradas em pequenos pedaços para reutilização. Esse processo mediado pela ubiquitina limpa as proteínas indesejadas resultantes durante a divisão celular e executa o controle de qualidade das proteínas recém-sintetizadas. Processos defeituosos de quebra de proteínas levam a condições como fibrose cística, várias doenças neuro-degenerativas e certos tipos de cancro.
Por fim, faz hoje anos que nascia, em 1951, o Cientista de computação americano Dan Bricklin. Ele, juntamente com Bob Frankston, criou o VisiCalc, o primeiro programa de folha calculo (1979) que criou um mercado parar além dos entusiastas dos novos computadores pessoais. As empresas acharam o programa muito útil devido à velocidade e precisão dos seus cálculos. Originalmente escrito em linguagem Assembler 6502 para correr num Apple II de 32K bytes, foi portado para praticamente todos os principais computadores pessoais baseados em 6502 e Z80 disponíveis. Eles não obtiveram grandes lucros financeiros com o programa de folhas de calculo, apesar de, eventualmente, terem vendido mais de meio milhão de cópias em 1983. Este programa foi a ideia base para mais tarde surgirem o Lotus 1-2-3, o QuattroPro e o Excel.
Nesta semana que passou a JEDEC Solid State Technology Association anunciou a publicação do tão esperado padrão JESD79-5 DDR5 SDRAM. O padrão endereça os requisitos de exigência impulsionados por aplicações intensivas de cloud e data center corporativo, fornecendo aos engenheiros de sistemas o dobro do desempenho e muito mais eficiência de energia comparativamente com o DDR4. A produção em massa deverá começar nesta segunda metade do ano.
Também esta semana ficámos a saber que vamos ser visitados pelo cometa Neowise (nome cientifico C/2020 F3). Descoberto em Março pela NASA este cometa começou a ser visto a olho nu no inicio do mês estando a aproximar-se do dia em que melhor se pode observar - dia 23 de Julho. Trata-se de um fenómeno raro e o ultimo que foi visto já foi à mais de 20 anos. O Neowise é visível em qualquer parte do hemisfério norte, inclusive nas cidades, desde que o céu esteja limpo. Para o ver, é preciso olhar para nordeste, entre as constelações de Dolphin e a Ursa Maior. O Neowise descreve uma grande elipse em torno do Sol e sua órbita leva 6.765 anos, ou seja, a sua última visita perto da Terra foi anterior à invenção da escrita na Mesopotâmia.
Na Newsletter desta semana apresentamos diversas noticias, artigos científicos assim como projetos de maker.
João Alves ([email protected])
O conteúdo da Newsletter encontra-se sob a licença Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Novidades da Semana
"JEDEC Solid State Technology Association, the global leader in the development of standards for the microelectronics industry, today announced the publication of the widely-anticipated JESD79-5 DDR5 SDRAM standard. The standard addresses demand requirements being driven by intensive cloud and enterprise data center applications, providing developers with twice the performance and much improved power efficiency. JESD79-5 DDR5 is now available for download from the JEDEC website. DDR5 was designed to meet increasing needs for efficient performance in a wide range of applications including client systems and high-performance servers. DDR5 incorporates memory technology that leverages and extends industry know-how and experience developing previous DDR memories. The standard is architected to enable scaling memory performance without degrading channel efficiency at higher speeds, which has been achieved by doubling the burst-length to BL16 and bank-count to 32 from 16." [...]
"An amazing comet that thrilled early-morning stargazers earlier this month is now visible in the evening sky, and it's a sight you won't want to miss. After all, this comet won't be back for 6,800 years, NASA says. Comet NEOWISE can now be seen just after sunset for observers in the Northern Hemisphere, according to NASA. (Sorry, Southern Hemisphere skywatchers, it's not visible there.) The comet made its closest approach to the sun July 3 but was only visible before dawn until now. "If you're in the Northern Hemisphere, you can see it," said Joe Masiero, deputy principal investigator of NEOWISE, the NASA space telescope that discovered the comet, in a NASA Science Live webcast Wednesday (July 15)." [...]
"Mobileye, an Intel company, received an automated vehicle (AV) testing permit recommendation from the independent technical service provider TÜV SÜD. As one of the leading experts in the field of safe and secure automated driving, TÜV SÜD enabled Mobileye to obtain approval from German authorities by validating the vehicle and functional safety concepts of Mobileye’s AV test vehicle. This allows Mobileye to perform AV testing anywhere in Germany, including urban and rural areas as well as the Autobahn at regular driving speed of up to 130 kilometers per hour. The AV testing in Germany in real-world traffic is starting now in and around Munich. “Mobileye is eager to show the world our best-in-class self-driving vehicle technology and safety solutions as we get closer to making safe, affordable self-driving mobility solutions and consumer vehicles a reality. The new AV Permit provides us an opportunity to instill even more confidence in autonomous driving with future riders, global automakers and international transportation agencies." [...]
"Toshiba Electronic Devices & Storage Corporation ("Toshiba") has launched “TB9120AFTG,” a constant-current 2-phase stepping motor driver for automotive applications. The new IC outputs a sine-wave current using only a simple clock input interface, with no need for an advanced functional MCU or dedicated software. TB9120AFTG was developed as a successor to TB9120FTG, introduced in 2019 as Toshiba’s first automotive stepping motor driver, and provides improved noise resistance. TB9120AFTG incorporates DMOS FETs with low on-resistance (upper + lower = 0.8Ω (typ. )), which achieve a maximum current of 1.5A. Both the DMOS FETs and the controller that generates micro-stepping sine waves (supporting up to 1/32 steps) are housed in a small QFN type package (6.0 mmｘ6.0 mm)." [...]
STMicroelectronics Simplifies IoT-Node Connectivity and Security with Latest STM32 Discovery Kit and Expansion Software
"STMicroelectronics is simplifying the complex software challenges that face developers of IoT nodes by introducing the B-L4S5I-IOT01A STM32 Discovery kit. The kit comes with a qualified port of FreeRTOS™, fully integrated into the STM32Cube ecosystem and ready to connect to Amazon Web Services (AWS). The hardware comprises an STM32L4+ microcontroller board that contains an extensive selection of ST MEMS sensors, an STSAFE-A110 secure element, Bluetooth® 4.2 and Wi-Fi® modules, and an NFC tag with printed antenna for flexible, low-power communication with cloud servers. Coming with the X-CUBE-AWS v2.0 STM32Cube Expansion Pack, the kit can be used as a reference design to simplify and accelerate completion of the final product. The X-CUBE-AWS v2.0 pack ensures proper integration of the FreeRTOS standard AWS connectivity framework within the STM32Cube environment. This lets users take advantage of both FreeRTOS and STM32Cube without developing additional software." [...]
Ciência e Tecnologia
"Researchers in the Cava Group have demystified the reasons for instability in an inorganic perovskite that has attracted wide attention for its potential in creating highly efficient solar cells. Using single crystal X-ray diffraction performed at Princeton University and X-ray pair distribution function measurements performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Princeton Department of Chemistry researchers detected that the source of thermodynamic instability in the halide perovskite cesium lead iodide (CsPbI3) is the inorganic cesium atom and its “rattling” behavior within the crystal structure. X-ray diffraction yields a clear experimental signature of this movement. The research, “Understanding the Instability of the Halide Perovskite CsPbI3 through Temperature-Dependent Structural Analysis,” was published in the journal Advanced Materials. Daniel Straus, a postdoctoral research associate in the Cava Group and lead author on the paper, explained that while cesium occupies a single site within the structure at temperatures below 150 K, it “splits” into two sites above 175 K. Along with other structural parameters, this suggests evidence of the rattling behavior of cesium within its iodine coordination polyhedron. In addition, the low number of cesium-iodine contacts within the structure and the high degree of local octahedral distortion also contribute to the instability." [...]
"Researchers integrated photo-patterned liquid crystal into a dielectric metasurface to achieve achromatic and chromatic focusing with a single metalens. The development of metasurfaces opened a horizon for the advance of planar optics. Among various metadevices, the metalens has attracted widespread attention for practical applications in imaging and spectroscopy, where it allows multifunctional wavefront manipulations for improved focus. As part of the trend of miniaturization and integration of photonic systems, metalenses are replacing the traditional refractive lenses made of polished crystals or polymers. But their functions remain static. The prospect of realizing active metalenses has motivated the introduction of materials with special properties, such as switchable bifocals or discrete focal lengths." [...]
"Cell phone batteries often heat up, and at times can even burst into flames. In most cases, the culprit behind such incidents can be traced back to lithium batteries. Despite providing long-lasting electric currents that can keep devices powered up, lithium batteries can internally short circuit, heating up the device. Researchers at Texas A&M University have invented a technology that can prevent lithium batteries from heating and failing. Their carbon nanotube design for the battery’s conductive plate, called the anode, enables the safe storage of a large quantity of lithium ions, thereby reducing the risk of fire. The researchers said that their new anode architecture will help lithium batteries charge faster than current commercially available batteries." [...]
"In the summer, many people enjoy walks along the beach looking for seashells. Among the most prized are those that contain iridescent mother of pearl (also known as nacre) inside. But many beachcombers would be surprised to learn that shimmery nacre is one of nature’s strongest, most resilient materials. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Nano have made a material with interlocked mineral layers that resembles nacre and is stronger and tougher than previous mimics. Some mollusks, such as abalone and pearl oysters, have shells lined with nacre. This material consists of layers of microscopic mineral “bricks” called aragonite stacked upon alternating layers of soft organic compounds." [...]
"Machine learning helps researchers and developers design lithium-metal batteries Battery experts at PNNL and elsewhere focus on developing rechargeable lithium-metal batteries because of their high energy density. Lithium-metal batteries have the potential to double the energy of lithium-ion batteries commonly used today in electric vehicles and cell phones. But the right combination of component materials and design is tricky. Now, PNNL has developed a software tool that helps universities, small business, and corporate developers to design better batteries with new materials that hold more energy. Machine Learning is key to battery design recommendations Dubbed Li-Batt Design App, the software uses machine learning to provide the design answers needed. Unlike commercial lithium-ion batteries, the cell design of these batteries—in which the negative electrode is made of up lithium-metal—is very different." [...]
"In the movie “Ant-Man,” the title character can shrink in size and travel by soaring on the back of an insect. Now researchers at the University of Washington have developed a tiny wireless steerable camera that can also ride aboard an insect, giving everyone a chance to see an Ant-Man view of the world. The camera, which streams video to a smartphone at 1 to 5 frames per second, sits on a mechanical arm that can pivot 60 degrees. This allows a viewer to capture a high-resolution, panoramic shot or track a moving object while expending a minimal amount of energy. To demonstrate the versatility of this system, which weighs about 250 milligrams — about one-tenth the weight of a playing card — the team mounted it on top of live beetles and insect-sized robots. The results were published July 15 in Science Robotics." [...]
"Physicists succeed at engineering an optical mirror made of only a few hundred atoms. It is the lightest one in the world and even imaginable. Physicists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have engineered the lightest optical mirror imaginable. The novel metamaterial is made of a single structured layer that consists only of a few hundred identical atoms. The atoms are arranged in the two dimensional array of an optical lattice formed by interfering laser beams. The research results are the first experimental observations of their kind in an only recently emerging new field of subwavelength quantum optics with ordered atoms." [...]
"New coating can eliminate complex disinfectant procedures for protective face shields Acting like an invisible force field, a new liquid coating being developed by UBC Okanagan researchers may provide an extra layer of protection for front-line workers. Researchers at the Okanagan Polymer Engineering Research and Applications (OPERA) Lab have developed a coating that repels nearly all substances off a surface. And that new coating will make cleaning personal protective equipment a little bit easier for front-line health care workers, explains Kevin Golovin, an assistant professor at UBCO’s School of Engineering and director at OPERA. Surfaces that can repel a broad range of liquids are called omniphobic, explains UBCO master's student and lead author of the study Behrooz Khatir. Working in Golovin’s lab, Khatir has created a spray-on solution that can make any surface, including a face shield, omniphobic. “Omniphobic—all-liquid repellent—films can repel a broad range of liquids, but the applicability of these coatings has always been limited to silicon wafers or smooth glass,” says Khatir." [...]
"The study led by VCU researchers addresses an important area for medicine, industry and science: Understanding how liquids — mainly water — interact with surfaces. A recently published study led by Virginia Commonwealth University researchers sheds new light on how water interacts with the nanomaterial graphene, a single, thin layer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal honeycomb lattice. The researchers’ findings could hold implications for a variety of applications, including sensors, fuel cell membranes, water filtration, and graphene-based electrode materials in high-performance supercapacitors. The study, “Solvent–Solvent Correlations across Graphene: The Effect of Image Charges,” was published in the American Chemical Society journal ACS Nano and was led by Neda Ojaghlou, Ph.D., who conducted the research as a doctoral student in the Department of Chemistry in the College of Humanities and Sciences. The project addressed an important area of study for medicine, industry and science: Understanding how liquids — mainly water —interact with surfaces. These interactions are measured in several ways, but particularly by monitoring “wetting,” inferred from the shape of a drop on a surface." [...]
"Paper from TU/e researchers selected to mark International Day of Light 2020 within nanophotonics field. Nanophotonics considers how light and matter at the nanoscale interact with each other, with findings in the field being important for nanofabrication techniques and in future photonic devices. Until recently, metallic nanoparticles have been predominantly used in nanophotonic devices. Nowadays though, semiconductor materials such as silicon are being considered for the nanoparticles. Researchers from Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) and the University of Kyoto have published two key papers in relation to nanophotonic configurations based on silicon. To mark the International Day of Light 2020, one paper, published in the journal ACS Photonics, has been selected as one of the top papers in the field of photonics over the past year." [...]
"For decades, researchers have looked for ways to eliminate cobalt from the high-energy batteries that power electronic devices, due to its high cost and the human rights ramifications of its mining. But past attempts haven’t lived up to the performance standards of batteries with cobalt. Researchers from the Cockrell School of Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin say they’ve cracked the code to a cobalt-free high-energy lithium-ion battery, eliminating the cobalt and opening the door to reducing the costs of producing batteries while boosting performance in some ways. The team reported a new class of cathodes — the electrode in a battery where all the cobalt typically resides — anchored by high nickel content. The cathode in their study is 89% nickel. Manganese and aluminum make up the other key elements." [...]
"Virginia Tech researchers have discovered a novel process to 3D print latex rubber, unlocking the ability to print a variety of elastic materials with complex geometric shapes. Latex, commonly known as the material in gloves or paint, refers to a group of polymers — long, repeating chains of molecules — coiled inside nanoparticles dispersed in water. 3D printed latex and other similarly rubbery materials called elastomers could be used for a variety of applications, including soft robotics, medical devices, or shock absorbers. 3D printed latex has been documented only a handful of times in scientific literature. None of the previous examples come close to the mechanical properties of the latex printed by an interdisciplinary team affiliated with the Macromolecules Innovation Institute (MII), the College of Science, and the College of Engineering. Through novel innovations in both the chemistry and mechanical engineering disciplines, the team overcame some long-standing limitations of 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing." [...]
"A novel and highly promising material for solar cells, halide perovskites, is more stable and consequently more efficient if just one ion is substituted. Researchers from AMOLF revealed in an unexpected manner why this is the case: pressure plays an important role. They published their findings on July 15th in Cell Reports Physical Science. Solar cells produced from a combination of silicon and perovskite – especially the variant with mixed halides such as iodine and bromine – can be more efficient and cheaper than the traditional silicon solar cells because they convert a greater proportion of the sunlight into electricity. However, perovskites degrade under the influence of light, and so they cannot be used yet for commercial applications. Substituting the cation (positively charged ion) in the structure improves the stability." [...]
"Chameleons are famous for their color-changing abilities. Depending on their body temperature or mood, their nervous system directs skin tissue that contains nanocrystals to expand or contract, changing how the nanocrystals reflect light and turning the reptile’s skin a rainbow of colors. Inspired by this, scientists at the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering (PME) at the University of Chicago have developed a way to stretch and strain liquid crystals to generate different colors. By creating a thin film of polymer filled with liquid crystal droplets and then manipulating it, they have determined the fundamentals for a color-changing sensing system that could be used for smart coatings, sensors, and even wearable electronics. The research, led by Juan de Pablo, Liew Family Professor of Molecular Engineering, was published July 10 in the journal Science Advances. Stretching liquid using thin films Liquid crystals, which exhibit distinct molecular orientations, are already the basis for many display technologies." [...]
"The latest generation of magnetic hard drives is made of magnetic thin films, which are invar materials. They allow extremely robust and high data storage density by local heating of ultrasmall nano-domains with a laser, so called heat assisted magnetic recording or HAMR. The volume in such invar materials hardly expands despite heating. A technologically relevant material for such HAMR data memories are thin films of iron-platinum nanograins. An international team led by the joint research group of Prof. Dr. Matias Bargheer at HZB and the University of Potsdam has now observed experimentally for the first time how a special spin-lattice interaction in these iron-platinum thin films cancels out the thermal expansion of the crystal lattice. The study has been published in Science Advances." [...]
"In topological materials, electrons can display behaviour that is fundamentally different from that in ‘conventional’ matter, and the magnitude of many such ‘exotic’ phenomena is directly proportional to an entity known as the Chern number. New experiments establish for the first time that the theoretically predicted maximum Chern number can be reached — and controlled — in a real material. When the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 2016 to David Thouless, Duncan Haldane and Michael Kosterlitz, they lauded the trio for having “opened the door on an unknown world where matter can assume strange states”. Far from being an oddity, the discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter, to which the three theoreticians have contributed so crucially, has grown into one of the most active fields of research in condensed matter physics today. Topological materials hold the promise, for instance, to lead to novel types of electronic components and superconductors, and they harbour deep connections across areas of physics and mathematics. While new phenomena are discovered routinely, there are fundamental aspects yet to be settled." [...]
"Using sophisticated optical microscopy techniques, Columbia engineers are first to demonstrate that sufficient strain in 2D material can yield single-photon emitters, key to quantum technologies and future photonic circuitry Researchers at Columbia Engineering and Montana State University report today that they have found that placing sufficient strain in a 2D material—tungsten diselenide (WSe2)—creates localized states that can yield single-photon emitters. Using sophisticated optical microscopy techniques developed at Columbia over the past 3 years, the team was able to directly image these states for the first time, revealing that even at room temperature they are highly tunable and act as quantum dots, tightly confined pieces of semiconductors that emit light. “Our discovery is very exciting, because it means we can now position a single-photon emitter wherever we want, and tune its properties, such as the color of the emitted photon, simply by bending or straining the material at a specific location,” says James Schuck, associate professor of mechanical engineering, who co-led the study published today by Nature Nanotechnology. “Knowing just where and how to tune the single-photon emitter is essential to creating quantum optical circuitry for use in quantum computers, or even in so-called ‘quantum’ simulators that mimic physical phenomena far too complex to model with today’s computers.” Developing quantum technologies such as quantum computers and quantum sensors is a rapidly developing field of research as researchers figure out how to use the unique properties of quantum physics to create devices that can be much more efficient, faster, and more sensitive than existing technologies. For instance, quantum information—think encrypted messages—would be much more secure. Light is made up of discrete packets of energy known as photons, and light-based quantum technologies rely on the creation and manipulation of individual photons." [...]
"For a long time, something important has been regularly neglected in electronics: If you want to make electronic components smaller and smaller, you also need the right insulator materials. Ever smaller and ever more compact - this is the direction in which computer chips are developing, driven by industry. This is why so-called 2D materials are considered to be the great hope: they are as thin as a material can possibly be, in extreme cases they consist of only one single layer of atoms. This makes it possible to produce novel electronic components with tiny dimensions, high speed and optimal efficiency. However, there is one problem: electronic components always consist of more than one material. 2D materials can only be used effectively if they can be combined with suitable material systems - such as special insulating crystals." [...]
"Robotic gripper with soft sensitive fingers developed at MIT can handle cables with unprecedented dexterity. For humans, it can be challenging to manipulate thin flexible objects like ropes, wires, or cables. But if these problems are hard for humans, they are nearly impossible for robots. As a cable slides between the fingers, its shape is constantly changing, and the robot’s fingers must be constantly sensing and adjusting the cable’s position and motion. Standard approaches have used a series of slow and incremental deformations, as well as mechanical fixtures, to get the job done. Recently, a group of researchers from MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) and from the MIT Department of Mechanical Engineering pursued the task from a different angle, in a manner that more closely mimics us humans." [...]
"A research team led by Cardiff University scientists say they are closer to understanding how a supermassive black hole (SMBH) is born thanks to a new technique that has enabled them to zoom in on one of these enigmatic cosmic objects in unprecedented detail. Scientists are unsure as to whether SMBHs were formed in the extreme conditions shortly after the big bang, in a process dubbed a ‘direct collapse’, or were grown much later from ‘seed’ black holes resulting from the death of massive stars. If the former method were true, SMBHs would be born with extremely large masses – hundreds of thousands to millions of times more massive than our Sun – and would have a fixed minimum size. If the latter were true then SMBHs would start out relatively small, around 100 times the mass of our Sun, and start to grow larger over time by feeding on the stars and gas clouds that live around them. Astronomers have long been striving to find the lowest mass SMBHs, which are the missing links needed to decipher this problem. In a study published today, the Cardiff-led team has pushed the boundaries, revealing one of the lowest-mass SMBHs ever observed at the centre of a nearby galaxy, weighing less than one million times the mass of our sun." [...]
"The Fermilab magnet team has done it again. After setting a world record for an accelerator magnet in 2019, they have broken it a year later. In a June 2020 test, a demonstrator magnet designed and built by the magnet team at the Department of Energy’s Fermilab achieved a 14.5-tesla field strength for an accelerator steering dipole magnet, surpassing their previous record of 14.1 T. This test is an important step toward addressing the demanding magnet requirements of a future hadron collider under discussion in the particle physics community. If built, such a collider would be four times larger and almost eight times more powerful than the 17-mile-circumference Large Hadron Collider at the European laboratory CERN, which operates at a steering field of 7.8 T. Current future-collider designs estimate the field strength for a steering magnet — the magnet responsible for bending particle beams around a curve — to be up to 16 T. “Our next goal is to break the ’15-tesla wall’ and advance the maximum field in accelerator steering magnets to 17 T and even above, significantly improve magnet quench performance and optimize cost,” said Fermilab scientist Alexander Zlobin, who leads the magnet project. “Reaching these goals will provide strong foundation for future high-energy colliders.” Research on accelerator magnets is supported by the Department of Energy Office of Science. " [...]
"Rice scientists stick to their laser guns to improve lithium metal technology Where things get sticky happens to be where interesting science happens in a Rice University lab working to improve battery technology. Using techniques similar to those they employed to develop laser-induced graphene, Rice chemist James Tour and his colleagues turned adhesive tape into a silicon oxide film that replaces troublesome anodes in lithium metal batteries. For the Advanced Materials study, the researchers used an infrared laser cutter to convert the silicone-based adhesive of commercial tape into the porous silicon oxide coating, mixed with a small amount of laser-induced graphene from the tape’s polyimide backing. The protective silicon oxide layer forms directly on the current collector of the battery. The idea of using tape came from previous attempts to produce free-standing films of laser-induced graphene, Tour said. Unlike pure polyimide films, the tape produced not only laser-induced graphene from the polyimide backing but also a translucent film where the adhesive had been." [...]
"Terahertz radiation, or T-rays, has barely been exploited compared to most of the rest of the electromagnetic spectrum. Yet T-rays potentially have applications in next-generation wireless communications (6G/7G), security systems, biomedicine, and even art history. A new device for controlling T-rays using a specially designed 'metasurface' with properties not found in nature could begin to realize this potential. The findings are published in the peer-reviewed journal Optics Express on July 13th, 2020. The 'terahertz gap' is a term used by engineers to describe how very little technology exists that makes use of the frequency band in the electromagnetic spectrum that lies between microwaves and infrared radiation: terahertz radiation (also called T-rays). While it is straightforward to generate and manipulate microwaves and infrared radiation, practical technologies that operate at room temperature and that are able to do the same with T-rays are inefficient and impractical." [...]
Scaled-up perovskite solar cells developed by NTU Singapore scientists achieve highest recorded power conversion
"A team of researchers at the Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) has created a perovskite solar mini module that has recorded the highest power conversion efficiency of any perovskite-based device larger than 10 cm2. Perovskites are new materials that have emerged as promising alternatives to silicon in solar cell applications. The material offers power conversion efficiencies similar to silicon solar cells but can also be used to create light-weight flexible and semi-transparent cells ideal for applications in buildings and a variety of urban spaces. Perovskite technologies are progressing rapidly towards industrialisation, with stability and scalability to larger sizes seen by researchers as the last hurdles to overcome. Now NTU researchers report that they have adopted a common industrial coating technique called 'thermal co-evaporation' and found that it can fabricate solar cell modules of 21 cm2 size with record power conversion efficiencies of 18.1 per cent. These are the highest recorded values reported for scalable perovskite solar cells." [...]
"In combined theoretical and experimental work, ETH physicists introduce and demonstrate a novel mechanism for electron optics in two-dimensional solid-state systems. The discovery opens up a route to engineering quantum-optical phenomena in a variety of materials and devices. Electrons can interfere in the same manner as water, acoustical or light waves do. When exploited in solid-state materials, such effects promise novel functionality for electronic devices, in which elements such as interferometers, lenses or collimators could be integrated for controlling electrons at the scale of mirco- and nanometres. However, so far such effects have been demonstrated mainly in one-dimensional devices, for example in nanotubes, or under specific conditions in two-dimensional graphene devices. Writing in Physical Review X, a collaboration including the Department of Physics groups of Klaus Ensslin, Thomas Ihn and Werner Wegscheider in the Laboratory for Solid State Physics and Oded Zilberberg at the Institute of Theoretical Physics, now introduces a novel general scenario for realizing electron optics in two dimensions." [...]
"Researchers at TU Dresden and HZDR develop the first neurotransistor Especially activities in the field of artificial intelligence, like teaching robots to walk or precise automatic image recognition, demand ever more powerful, yet at the same time more economical computer chips. While the optimization of conventional microelectronics is slowly reaching its physical limits, nature offers us a blueprint how information can be processed and stored quickly and efficiently: our own brain. For the very first time, scientists at TU Dresden and the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have now successfully imitated the functioning of brain neurons using semiconductor materials. They have published their research results in the journal Nature Electronics (DOI: 10.1038/s41928-020-0412-1). Today, enhancing the performance of microelectronics is usually achieved by reducing component size, especially of the individual transistors on the silicon computer chips. “But that can't go on indefinitely – we need new approaches”, Larysa Baraban asserts." [...]
"Combining integrated photonics and MEMS technology, scientists from EPFL and Purdue University demonstrate monolithic piezoelectric control of integrated optical frequency combs with bulk acoustic waves. The technology opens up integrated ultrafast acousto-optic modulation for demanding applications. Piezoelectric materials can convert electrical voltage to mechanical displacement and vice versa. They are ubiquitous in modern wireless communication networks such as in cellphones. Today, piezoelectric devices, including filters, transducers and oscillators, are used in billions of devices for wireless communications, global positioning, navigations, and space applications. In an article published in Nature, a collaboration lead by Professor Tobias J. Kippenberg at EPFL and Professor Sunil A. Bhave at Purdue University has combined piezoelectric aluminium nitride (AlN) technology – used in modern cellphones’ radio frequency filters – with ultralow-loss silicon nitride (Si3N4) integrated photonics, demonstrating a new scheme for on-chip acousto-optic modulation." [...]
"A comprehensive analysis of vector vortex beam transmission through scattering media offers insights into the behavior of light carrying orbital angular momentum Propagate light through any kind of medium – be it free space or biological tissue – and light will scatter. Robustness to scattering is a common requirement for communications and for imaging systems. Structured light, with its use of projected patterns, is resistant to scattering, and has therefore emerged as a versatile tool. In particular, modes of structured light carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) have attracted significant attention for applications in biomedical imaging. OAM is an internal property of light conferring a characteristic doughnut shape to the spatial profile. The polarization profile of OAM modes of light can also be structured." [...]
"How should one design porous carbon materials for advanced Li-S batteries cathodes? What electrolytes are extensively studied for high-safety Li-S batteries? In a paper published in NANO, a group of researchers from Qingdao, China have reviewed the recent progresses in sulfur/carbon cathode materials and high safety electrolytes towards advanced Li-S batteries. Some potential issues and possible developmental directions are also discussed. Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is one of the most promising secondary batteries for its high energy density, high natural abundance and environment-friendly nature of sulfur. However, the commercial application of Li-S battery faces some technical obstacles, such as low cycling stability resulted from the shuttle effect of polysulfides, low electrical conductivity of sulfur, and volume expansion during charge/discharge process." [...]
"Scientists in Korea explain a new process that maximizes photon conversion in 2D materials, which could innovate photonic-based applications Scientists at Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Korea, have developed a new process that provides an ultrafast process of photon generation in two-dimensional materials. This process can potentially fuel the development of advanced optical devices in the field of photonics. Photonics, or the science of manipulating light, has various applications in modern electronics—such as in information technology, semiconductors, and health-based devices. Thus, researchers globally have been focused on finding novel approaches to spur advances in the field of photonics. But, the challenge lies in optimizing the process of “photon generation” as desired, which is crucial to all photonics-based applications. In a recent study published in Nano Letters, a team of researchers at Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), led by Professor J.D." [...]
"RMIT-UNSW collaboration applies liquid-metal synthesis to piezoelectrics, advancing future flexible, wearable electronics, and biosensors drawing their power from the body’s movements. Materials such as atomically-thin tin-monosulfide (SnS) are predicted to exhibit strong piezoelectric properties, converting mechanical forces or movement into electrical energy. This property, along with their inherent flexibility, makes them likely candidates for developing flexible nanogenerators that could be used in wearable electronics or internal, self-powered biosensors. However to date, this potential has been held back by limitations in synthesising large, highly crystalline monolayer tin-monosulfide (and other group IV monochalcogenides), with difficulties caused by strong interlayer coupling. The new study resolves this issue by applying a new liquid-metal technique, developed at RMIT, to synthesise the materials. Subsequent measurements confirm that tin-monosulfide synthesised using the new method displays excellent electronic and piezoelectric properties." [...]
"Tulane University researchers are part of a team of scientists who have developed a hybrid solar energy converter that generates electricity and steam with high efficiency and low cost. The work led by Matthew Escarra, associate professor of physics and engineering physics at Tulane, and Daniel Codd, associate professor of mechanical engineering at the University of San Diego, is the culmination of a U.S. Department of Energy ARPA-E project that began in 2014 with $3.3 million in funding and involved years of prototype development at Tulane and field testing in San Diego. The research is detailed this month in the science journal Cell Reports Physical Science. Researchers from San Diego State University, Boeing-Spectrolab and Otherlab were also part of the project. “Thermal energy consumption is a huge piece of the global energy economy – much larger than electricity use. There has been a rising interest in solar combined heat and power systems to deliver both electricity and process heat for zero-net-energy and greenhouse-gas-free development,” said Escarra." [...]
"A new fundamental understanding of polymeric relaxor ferroelectric behavior could lead to advances in flexible electronics, actuators and transducers, energy storage, piezoelectric sensors and electrocaloric cooling, according to a team of researchers at Penn State and North Carolina State. Researchers have debated the theory behind the mechanism of relaxor ferroelectrics for more than 50 years, said Qing Wang, professor of materials science and engineering at Penn State. While relaxor ferroelectrics are well-recognized, fundamentally fascinating and technologically useful materials, a Nature article commented in 2006 that they were heterogeneous, hopeless messes. Without a fundamental understanding of the mechanism, little progress has been made in designing new relaxor ferroelectric materials. The new understanding, which relies on both experiment and theoretical modeling, shows that relaxor ferroelectricity in polymers comes from chain conformation disorders induced by chirality. Chirality is a feature of many organic materials in which molecules are mirror images of each other, but not exactly the same." [...]
"Researchers at EPFL have shown that electromagnetic waves coupled to precisely engineered structures known as artificial ferromagnetic quasicrystals allow for more efficient information transmission and processing at the nanoscale. Their research also represents the first practical demonstration of Conway worms, a theoretical concept for the description of quasicrystals. High-frequency electromagnetic waves are used to transmit and process information in microelectronic devices such as smartphones. It’s already appreciated that these waves can be compressed using magnetic oscillations known as spin waves or magnons. This compression could pave the way for the design of nanoscale, multifunctional microwave devices with a considerably reduced footprint. But first, scientists need to gain a better understanding of spin waves – or precisely how magnons behave and propagate in different structures." [...]
Diversos Projetos interessantes.
"This custom keyboard was created to speed up my 3D CAD development. My 60 most used commands are now just a click or two away. The keyboard is fully customizable, uses standard components and is easy to replicate since it does not use a PCB, instead everything is 3D printed using the 3DPCB idea. Features 33 keys (5×6+3) Easy to customize (printable keycaps with laminated paper inlay) Anyone can build it using a 3D-printer (FFF/FDM), common components and a soldering iron. QMK firmware (allowing advanced keyboard layout) Replaceable keycaps – twist and release Using common 6x6mm TACT switches Anti-ghosting using 1N4148 diodes No PCB required (everything is 3D printed) Low activation force (depending on switches) Ergonomic – half size keyboard enables shoulder width position of hands. Bill of Materials (BOM) 1x Arduino pro micro (or clone) 33x 6x6mm tact switches (low actuation force) 33x 1N4148 Diodes (can be omitted, with risk of key ghosting when pressing multiple keys) Strands of 0.3mm copper wire (from RK Cable) PLA for 3D printer Micro USB cable Development I realized that I frequently use the same commands when I am designing different things (like e.g." [...]
"A while back I started a project known as stormduino. Stormduino is essentially an arduino uno R3 clone made in Kicad with some slightly different components. For those of you who don’t know what KiCad is, it’s a pretty powerful open source electronics design tool that you can check out here: https://kicad-pcb.org/ After a few revisions of the PCB, I managed to get a working prototype. The project is open source so you can pretty much do whatever you want with it. " [...]
"Most of the time, we wear masks to help us stay safe. But sometimes, it's fun to add a little life to your facewear. This mask uses an Adafruit Circuit Playground Express board to flash a shiny smile whenever you talk, using its built-in sound sensor and easy-to-learn Microsoft MakeCode programming! This mask itself is simple to sew by hand or on a machine and comfortable to wear. It's got two layers of fabric with a pouch that can hold a filter -- or your CPX. It's a great project for kids (or anyone) who are just learning to sew and learning to code!" [...]
"Learn how to send messages to and from Amazon Web Services using the PIC-IoT and AVR-IoT development boards from Microchip. What if you could prototype your IoT hardware device and build your cloud application at the same time? Good news. My team and I spent months stumbling through an embedded-to-cloud journey. We fell into time traps and discovered pitfalls so that you don't need to! We believe we have finally curated an ideal way to get you started developing your own applications." [...]
"Electric prism is a USB-powered night light which can be programmed using Arduino development tools. This project was born out of a desire to do a simple circuit board design at home, that I would actually use. My first attempt at this was a really simple design with just white colored LEDs. After gaining some experience with programmable color LEDs, I decided to incorporate these and a few other elements in my current design. While my initial plans for the project were personal, I’m now exploring the possibility that this could be an educational tool. Yes, the world is already full of STEM products like robots and powerful dev boards." [...]
"It is not a mystery that we usually have doubts about the energy consumption records presented by the bills. For this reason I set out to create my own energy meter to be sure of what is really happening, if we are being lied to and if we are really being deceived. " [...]
"Weve been loving our Shapeoko CNC and have made some fun projects recently. One thing we need to improve on is nesting designs to minimize waste. In order to reuse the scrap aluminum, we made this electric foundry to melt scraps into an ingot that can be machined again. To give a overview of this project, we spent about $200 USD to complete the build and with out 120VAC circuit at home, the calculated power of this foundry is about 1.6kW. You can check out the entire build video on Youtube linked above. (We would also appreciate a like and sharing if you think it's worth it :)) DISCLAIMER: THIS PROJECT UTILIZES HIGH VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLIES AND PRESENTS A SERIOUS RISK OF PERSONAL INJURY (E.G." [...]
"I have bought a tiny OLED display, its clean and clarity draw my attention. But what can I do with itActually, the point is how can I show it off... Lol. Well, when I looked at the poster of The Lord of the Rings, which is my favorite movie series, I got an Idea! How about using this OLED display to make a ring clock? That sounds great, no sooner said than done. To begin with, I need to select the power supply, clock module, and main-controller for my project." [...]
"This tutorial will explain how to build an Audio Visualizer with an Arduino Uno and some addressable LEDs. This is a project I've been wanting to do for some time now because I'm a sucker for sound reactive lights. These lights use the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) library to compute the frequency peaks heard by the built in mic and displays each frequency in a different color. I had originally planned to include a button and some alternative modes for the display but I didn't get a chance to write the code for it. If you have some Arduino experience it shouldn't be too hard for you to modify my code to include other animations or even just different colors. Al you'll need to add is a button with a 330 ohm resistor." [...]
"This is a nodemcu esp8266 microcontroller based gaming console that can play flappy bird and many other games.This machine can also be used to make deauther based on spacehuhns code at https://github.com/SpacehuhnTech/esp8266_deauther . Supplies: The requirements for this project are : 1.Nodemcu Esp8266 Development board 2.0.96 inch i2c oled screen 3.Push Button 4.Copper clad pcb 5.Faber Castell permanent marker 6.Solder wire and iron 7.Jumper wire (if pcb not made) 8.Smartphone battery 9.Ferric Chloride 10.male headers 11.micro usb for uploading files" [...]
"For Electronics Enthusiast like me, it is impossible to forget how great the 555 timer IC is. Thanks to its simplicity, versatility and its low price, millions of users from hobbyist to professional level have made so much projects out of it and the applications seem to be endless. So I rewarded the IC with a little effort by creating its much bigger version out of Illustration board as body and aluminum can as pins. This is also a good illustration that can be used by teachers in their lessons in electronics. This is a working IC as well. Supplies: Materials: 1." [...]
"Nintendo Emulator for Arduino DUE by Nathalis Overclocked Arduino DUE quite able to emulate NES games, the emulator is based on Nofrendo Remix, contains memory hacks, because Arduino DUE has a hardware limit of 96 KB RAM. Nothing is guaranteed. NES ROM size limit is ~ 49168 bytes (Is able to run Super Mario Bros.) Used Libraries: marekburiak-ILI9341_due, greiman-SdFat, SchedulerARMAVR..." [...]
"A prototype of robot that can disinfect surfaces using UV-C rays and automatically turns off if it detects human motion. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2). COVID-19 has affected nearly 12.2 million people and has claimed the lives of 552, 112 people from all over the world. This disease affects different people in different ways. Some people may develop mild to moderate illness and recover without special treatment or hospitalisation, while some may develop severe illness and even die. The incubation period of this virus, on average 5-6 days but it could also be up to 2 weeks." [...]
"RGB LEDs Triangular/Hexagonal Pixels Matrix HexMatrix is the LED matrix having many triangular pixels. Six pixels combining makes a hexagon. There are many different animations that can be shown on the matrix form FastLED library, Also I have designed digits from 0 to 9 using 10 segments for each digit in the matrix and made a IOT clock. " [...]
"Fancy to see your's vehicle data online in real-time? If so, continue reading! 1) In a nutshell So today we will connect our car to the internet. Literally. Using Arduino MKR1000 & ELM327 micro-controllers we will send various data from car's engine control unit (RPM, Engine temperature, Velocity.....) to the IBM Watson Cloud using MQTT protocol. Also we will create responsive web-app interface using Node-RED (available on IBM Watson Cloud) and custom iOS application with SwiftUI & CocoaPod's MQTT library." [...]
"A Smart Automatic Contactless Temperature Checkup and Mask Detection Kiosk using Facial Landmarking and Deep Learning for under $100. Countries around the Globe are Reopening, living with the Novel Coronavirus is becoming the new way of life. But to Stop the Spread of the Virus we need to separate people having the Coronavirus from the Rest. According to the CDC, fever is the leading symptom of the Coronavirus with up to 83% of Symptomatic Patients showing some signs of fever. Many Countries are making Temperature Checkups and Masks mandatory for Schools, Colleges, Offices, and other Workplaces. Currently, Temperature Checkups are done manually using Contactless Thermometer." [...]
"With this project, you will always know what the weather is. The eInk Bonnet or Breakout will always let you know what the weather is. If you lose power to your Raspberry Pi or other single board computer, you will still be able to see what the latest weather update is because the ePaper display still shows the last thing written to it! Using Python, this project queries the Open Weather Maps site API to find out the current weather for your location and displays it along with an informative icon. This project makes use of the meteocons True Type Font to display the icon, so there are no actual images used in this project. " [...]
"A contact-less temperature measurement booth using face detection and helping people what to do next if high temperature is detected. In this project, I build a device which can be used to detect face from thermal camera readings and can accurately measure person temperature by extrapolating the facial skin temperature. If high temperature is detected, the person can use their smartphone to scan QR code (displayed at the screen) for further information. Also, a local helpline phone number is displayed where the person can contact for enquiry. Main features Contactless Easy to use, reproduce and deploy at mass scale Low cost Open source User privacy Developing countries friendly Accuracy Speed" [...]
"This game with leds that will entertain you for a long time, This project is my first game that I have done and, as always, before uploading a project, I try it and it was very fun to try it, it is very fun and not only for adults but also for children, the game consists of the following: they have to press the button on the blue led not the red or green led why or if you do not lose if it is on the blue led on the right side, press the right button if it is the left press the left button is a round of 3 "lives "who loses them, loses the game. The lights come on regarding any errors you have made and the LCD will show the result. How to arm: 1. Make the first button first connected to 5v, gnd and pin 3. 2. arm the lights connected from pins 13 to 4 from left to right 3. build the second button connected to 5v, gnd and pin 2. 4. arm the buzzer connected to pin 1 5. assemble the lcd with 5v, gnd, SDA and SCL to your specific pins" [...]
"The Inspiration One of many solutions to help our front liners fight this pandemic is automating some of their tasks, that doesn't need expert medical background to do it. One of those tasks is delivering things to the patient. Those goods could be foods, medicines, or family-givings to the patient. While it seems not-so-significant, it is actually one of the most frequent thing that our front liners do to the patient. It happens because not all of the patient are suffering chronically from the pandemic, and still doing some normal activities, but quarantined. According to WHO, only one of six person becomes seriously ill because of the disease, and 80% of people recovered without needing serious treatment." [...]
"This cube is easy to build with no circuit board and minimum external components; and it comes with a lot of animations and effects. This is the third and final project in a series to see how much LED cube technology we can create using just an Arduino Mega, i.e. what can be accomplished using only the Mega itself without a PC board full of shift registers and LED drivers. Why do I want to avoid shift registers? Because they are absolutely horrible to hand wire. (I've tried it.)" [...]
"The project was conducted as a part of the Computational Design and Digital Fabrication Seminar in the International Master of Science Programme: ITECH Introduction Physical Twin is an artistic robot which enjoys painting with the collaboration of humans. Integrating the experimentality of the field of robotics with the human imagination, the robot can be remotely and physically controlled while inherently avoiding obstacles, besides can learn from those transferred directions. There are three chief parts of the painter: remotely steered robotic car, physically controlled 4-axis robotic arm and the main controller board. Those parts become a subsidiary to the Physical Twin for expressing its artistic side owing to not only its inherent movement possibilities but also the guidance of individuals. Features -By having a small physical twin, the robotic arm can learn from its twins movements that are controlled by humans and repeat those movements endlessly. -With the aim of having a better control over the Physical Twin; train, record and play modes can be visualised by the LED lights." [...]
"Shoot some hoops and score some points! LED Pixel Hoops Build an LED scoreboard with mini IR sensing hoop using an RGB Matrix and CircuitPython! This indoor game lets you shoot hoops and display your score on a 64x32 LED Matrix. IR Sensing Hoop The hoop houses an IR breakbeam sensor that detects when a ball has gone through it. The 3D printed parts hold everything together and are designed to be easy to build. There’s an arcade button on the side that’s used for starting a new game and resetting the score." [...]
That's all Folks!