2019-08-01 - Nº 222
Esta é a Newsletter Nº 222 que se apresenta com o mesmo formato que as anteriores. Se gostar da Newsletter partilhe-a!
Todas as Newsletters encontram-se indexadas no link.
Esta Newsletter tem os seguintes tópicos:
Faz hoje anos que nascia, em 1885, George de Hevesy. Este químico húngaro-dinamarquês-sueco recebeu o Prémio Nobel de 1943 por desenvolver técnicas de traçador isotópico que permitiram entender os caminhos químicos dos processos da vida. Por exemplo, um isótopo radioactivo de fósforo, preparado em soluções de fosfato de sódio pode ser injectado em animais e humanos, e amostras de sangue são analisadas. Isto mostra que o conteúdo de fósforo radioactivo no sangue humano cai depois de apenas 2 horas para apenas 2% de sua quantidade original, à medida que muda de lugar com os átomos de fósforo dentro dos tecidos, órgãos e esqueleto. Ele também descobriu, com Dirk Coster, o elemento hafnium (1923).
Faz também hoje anos que nascia, em 1889, Walter Gerlach. Este físico alemão ficou conhecido pelo seu trabalho com Otto Stern sobre as de-flexões de átomos em um campo magnético não homogéneo. A experiência Stern-Gerlach é uma demonstração da orientação espacial restrita de partículas atómicas e subatómicas com polaridade magnética, realizada no início da década de 1920 pelos físicos alemães Otto Stern e Walther Gerlach. Na experiência, um feixe de átomos de prata neutros foi direccionado através de um conjunto de fendas alinhadas, depois através de um campo magnético não uniforme (não homogéneo).
Faz igualmente hoje anos que nascia, em 1924, Georges Charpak. Este Físico polaco-francês recebeu o Prémio Nobel de Física em 1992 pela sua invenção e desenvolvimento de detectores de partículas subatómicas, em particular a câmara proporcional multi-filar, um avanço na técnica para explorar as partes mais internas da matéria. Como os físicos de partículas têm focado o seu interesse em interacções de partículas muito raras, que frequentemente revelam os segredos das partes internas da matéria, às vezes apenas uma interacção de partículas em um bilião é a única pesquisada. Charpak substituiu agora métodos fotográficos inadequados por electrónicos modernos que ligavam o detector directamente a um computador.
Por fim, faz hoje anos que nascia, em 1945, Douglas Osheroff. Este físico norte-americano partilhou com David M. Lee e Robert Richardson) o Prémio Nobel de Física de 1996 pela descoberta da super-fluidez no isótopo hélio-3. Quando o hélio é reduzido na temperatura em direcção ao quase zero absoluto, ocorre uma estranha transição de fase, e o hélio toma a forma de um superfluido. Os átomos tinham até esse ponto movido-se com velocidades e direcções aleatórias. Mas como um superfluido, os átomos passam a mover-se de forma coordenada.
Nesta semana que passou ficámos a saber que a Fujitsi mantém em pleno funcionamento um computador feito em 1959. Um técnico - Tadao Hamada - de 49 anos assegura o seu funcionamento. Ele acredita que manter a operacionalidade histórica do FACOM128B ajudará a levar a herança tecnológica do Japão à posteridade. O computador, que pesa três toneladas, faz barulhos ruidosos cada vez que faz um cálculo abrindo e fechando interruptores usando um electro-íman. O modelo FACOM128B, desenvolvido pela Fujitsu em 1959 como um computador pioneiro fabricado no Japão para competir com a International Business Machines Corp. nos Estados Unidos, adoptou a tecnologia de retransmissão usada no núcleo das centrais telefónicas.
Também esta semana que passou ficámos a saber que a Intel lançou a primeira 10ª geração de processadores Intel Core. Estes novos processadores da 10ª Geração Intel Core mudam o paradigma do que significa entregar liderança em plataformas de PC móvel. Com IA em larga escala pela primeira vez em PCs, uma arquitectura gráfica totalmente nova, o melhor da classe Wi-Fi 6 (Gig +) e Thunderbolt 3 - todos integrados no SoC, graças à tecnologia de processo de 10 nm da Intel.
Ainda esta semana que passou um grupo de investigadores publicou um artigo onde descreve lentes de contacto que podem mudar o foco e a ampliação quando se pisca os olhos. Há duas partes na nova lente de contacto, a primeira é a própria lente, que imita como a lente no olho humano funciona. Em vez de tecido orgânico, é feito de camadas de filmes de polímeros elásticos que alteram sua estrutura quando uma corrente eléctrica é aplicada. Nesse caso, os fios fornecem electricidade de uma fonte de energia externa, o que faz com que as camadas se expandam, reduzindo a espessura da lente ou contraindo, o que tem o efeito oposto.
Na Newsletter desta semana apresentamos diversos projetos de maker. São também apresentados um conjunto de livros escritos por James M. Fiore sobre electrónica.
João Alves ([email protected])
O conteúdo da Newsletter encontra-se sob a licença Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Novidades da Semana
"Long obsolete and not just a museum piece, an early massive computer developed 60 years ago remains working, thanks to a technician dedicated to preserving it for future generations. Tadao Hamada believes that keeping the historic FACOM128B operational will help hand down Japan's technological heritage to posterity.“I will maintain it forever,” said Hamada, 49. Hamada, an employee of Fujitsu Tokki Systems Ltd., a Fujitsu Ltd. subsidiary, works at a plant here to preserve the aged computer, which weighs three tons. It makes rattling sounds each time it makes a calculation by opening and closing switches using an electromagnet. The FACOM128B model, which was developed by Fujitsu in 1959 as a pioneering Japan-made computer to compete with International Business Machines Corp. in the United States, adopted relay technology used for the core part of telephone switchboards. Use of vacuum tubes instead of relay technology was common at the time." [...]
"Today, Intel officially launched 11 new, highly integrated 10th Gen Intel® Core™ processors designed for remarkably sleek 2 in 1s and laptops. The processors bring high-performance artificial intelligence (AI) to the PC at scale, feature new Intel® Iris® Plus graphics for stunning entertainment and enable the best connectivity1 with Intel® Wi-Fi 6 (Gig+) and Thunderbolt™ 3. Systems are expected from PC manufacturers for the holiday season. “These 10th Gen Intel Core processors shift the paradigm for what it means to deliver leadership in mobile PC platforms. With broad-scale AI for the first time on PCs, an all-new graphics architecture, best-in-class Wi-Fi 6 (Gig+) and Thunderbolt 3 – all integrated onto the SoC, thanks to Intel’s 10nm process technology and architecture design – we’re opening the door to an entirely new range of experiences and innovations for the laptop.” –Chris Walker, Intel corporate vice president and general manager of Mobility Client Platforms in the Client Computing Group Why It Matters: 10th Gen Intel Core processors are foundational to Intel’s journey in enabling uncompromising and workload-optimized PC platforms with performance leadership across all vectors of computing. In addition to performance and responsiveness gains, AI, graphics, connectivity and I/O are optimized on the SoC for a solution that delivers a feature-rich suite of capabilities for OEMs to create laptops for people to watch, game and create more." [...]
"Believe it or not, contact lenses are still an option for those who wear glasses that accommodate multiple prescriptions, but because of the unique approach they take to remedying vision problems, it can sometimes take over a month to get used to using them. Researchers at the University of California San Diego have created a better alternative with a prototype contact lens that can automatically switch between focusing on near or far objects by detecting the wearer’s eye movements. It sounds like a medical breakthrough straight out of science fiction, and for the time being, it kind of is. It will take years before the contact lens can function as promised directly on a human eye. The prototype only functions in a special rig using several components that will have to be dramatically miniaturized before a human could wear it, and the test subjects look less than comfortable with a series of electrodes placed on their skin around their eyes. But it demonstrates some fascinating uses of existing technology that could make contacts a viable alternative for more users." [...]
"Less than two years ago, Tesla built and installed the world’s largest lithium-ion battery in Hornsdale, South Australia, using Tesla Powerpack batteries. Since then, the facility saved nearly $40 million in its first year alone and helped to stabilize and balance the region’s unreliable grid. Battery storage is transforming the global electric grid and is an increasingly important element of the world’s transition to sustainable energy. To match global demand for massive battery storage projects like Hornsdale, Tesla designed and engineered a new battery product specifically for utility-scale projects: Megapack. Megapack significantly reduces the complexity of large-scale battery storage and provides an easy installation and connection process. Each Megapack comes from the factory fully-assembled with up to 3 megawatt hours (MWhs) of storage and 1.5 MW of inverter capacity, building on Powerpack’s engineering with an AC interface and 60% increase in energy density to achieve significant cost and time savings compared to other battery systems and traditional fossil fuel power plants." [...]
"The wait is finally over, the Arduino Nano 33 BLE and BLE Sense are both available. The boards have been manufactured, delivered to our warehouses, and will start shipping in mid-August. These new boards are an exciting addition to our product line — based on the powerful Nordic nRF52840 Bluetooth SoC, a Cortex-M4F Arm processor with advanced Bluetooth capabilities. Together with the u-blox NINA B306 module, the BLE Sense in particular delivers a lot of value through its impressive array of onboard sensors: a 9-axis inertial measurement unit (IMU), temperature, pressure, humidity, light, color, and even gesture sensors, as well as a microphone, that are managed through our specialized libraries. To coincide with the launch of the boards we’re making the official Arduino programming support for this processor available — in Arduino slang what we call a “Core.” The ArduinoCore-nRF528x-mbedos that you will be able to add to your Arduino IDE in a few hours is based on the Arm Mbed OS Real-Time Operating System. This is an amazing addition to the Arduino software stack because now you can transparently take full advantage of a powerful RTOS while using all your existing Arduino programming knowledge." [...]
"Years of computer simulations. Countless ground tests. They've all led up to now. The Planetary Society's crowdfunded LightSail 2 spacecraft is successfully raising its orbit solely on the power of sunlight. Since unfurling the spacecraft's silver solar sail last week, mission managers have been optimizing the way the spacecraft orients itself during solar sailing. After a few tweaks, LightSail 2 began raising its orbit around the Earth." [...]
"Electric-vehicle chargers today are designed for human drivers. Electrify America and San Francisco-based startup Stable are preparing for the day when humans are no longer behind the wheel. Electrify America, the entity set up by Volkswagen as part of its settlement with U.S. regulators over the diesel emissions cheating scandal, is partnering with Stable to test a system that can charge electric vehicles without human intervention. The autonomous electric-vehicle charging system will combine Electrify America’s 150 kilowatt DC fast charger with Stable’s software and robotics. A robotic arm, which is equipped with computer vision to see the electric vehicle’s charging port, is attached to the EV charger. The two companies plan to open the autonomous charging site in San Francisco by early 2020." [...]
"We are pleased to announce the Mbed OS 5.13.2 release is now available. This is the latest patch release based on the feature set that Mbed OS 5.13 introduces. Summary In this release, we have made a number of quality improvements: Updated Mbed TLS to 2.18.1 and Mbed Crypto to 1.1.1 Updated the MCUXpresso AnalogIn driver to pass the FPGA test shield tests Enabled FPGA-based SPI testing on Silicon Labs targets Added information about sectors to STM32F446ZE targets The following reported issues have also been fixed in this release: Fixed the MCUXpresso LPC GPIO IRQ driver to not disable both rising and falling edges of the interrupt Fixed SAADC resolution for nRF52-based targets Fixed serial device IRQ infinite loop in STM devices when buffer size is greater than 256 bytes There are also a number of other fixes and code improvements. For full details of this and previous releases, please visit our releases page. " [...]
Ciência e Tecnologia
"A team of EPFL researchers has set itself the lofty goal of building the biggest-ever database that digitizes the visual appearance of all natural and synthetic materials in the world. Is it possible to digitally replicate the way light shines off silk, the kaleidoscope of colors on butterfly wings, or the structure of fabrics, plastics, and stones? A team of researchers at EPFL’s Realistic Graphics Lab, headed by Wenzel Jakob, is developing computer models to do just that. Their process begins by meticulously digitizing any material they can lay their hands on, using a sophisticated machine called a gonio-photometer. Imagine taking a photo of a car on a sunny day: the picture will only capture its appearance for that specific viewpoint and illumination, but it cannot tell us how the same car would look from another viewpoint later in the evening. In contrast to a camera, a gonio-photometer measures the light reflected by a material at different angles, capturing the essence of what gives the car’s painted surface its particular look: shiny, pearlescent, metallic, faded, etc." [...]
"By analyzing single particles of light, this camera system can reconstruct room-size scenes and moving objects that are hidden around a corner. This work could someday help autonomous cars and robots see better. David Lindell, a graduate student in electrical engineering at Stanford University, donned a high visibility tracksuit and got to work, stretching, pacing and hopping across an empty room. Through a camera aimed away from Lindell – at what appeared to be a blank wall – his colleagues could watch his every move. That’s because, hidden to the naked eye, he was being scanned by a high powered laser and the single particles of light he reflected onto the walls around him were captured and reconstructed by the camera’s advanced sensors and processing algorithm. “People talk about building a camera that can see as well as humans for applications such as autonomous cars and robots, but we want to build systems that go well beyond that,” said Gordon Wetzstein, an assistant professor of electrical engineering at Stanford." [...]
"Engineers at Washington University have developed what they believe is a more stable, less toxic semiconductor for solar applications using a novel double perovskite oxide. Rohan Mishra, assistant professor of mechanical engineering & materials science in the McKelvey School of Engineering, led an interdisciplinary, international team that discovered the new semiconductor, which is made up of potassium, barium, tellurium, bismuth and oxygen (KBaTeBiO6). The lead-free double perovskite oxide was one of an initial 30,000 potential bismuth-based oxides. Their work has been published in Chemistry of Materials. Using materials informatics and quantum mechanical calculations on one of the world’s fastest supercomputers, Arashdeep Singh Thind, a doctoral student in Mishra’s lab based at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, found KBaTeBiO6 to be the most promising out of the 30,000 potential oxides. “We found that this looked to be the most stable compound and that it could be synthesised in the lab,” Mishra said in a statement." [...]
"A new battery made from affordable and durable materials generates energy from places where salt and fresh waters mingle. The technology could make coastal wastewater treatment plants energy-independent and carbon neutral. Salt is power. It might sound like alchemy, but the energy in places where salty ocean water and freshwater mingle could provide a massive source of renewable power. Stanford researchers have developed an affordable, durable technology that could harness this so-called blue energy. The paper, recently published in American Chemical Society’s ACS Omega, describes the battery and suggests using it to make coastal wastewater treatment plants energy-independent." [...]
"What’s in store for the future of computing? Steven Ashby, director at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, tackles the tale of its advancement in the latest issue of CIO Review. Beginning in 2021, the U.S. Department of Energy will deploy the first of three exascale computers capable of one quintillion floating-point operations per second for scientific and national security research. Exascale computers certainly have their place and quantum computers aren't suited for every kind of problem, but there is a growing buzz -- and it's all about quantum! “This new kind of computing could revolutionize scientific discovery and advance technology from clean energy to precision medicine,” Ashby says. “No individual or even a single institution will achieve the quantum quest." [...]
"UMass Amherst chemists, electrical engineers identify new variable for material design By one official estimate, American manufacturing, transportation, residential and commercial consumers use only about 40 percent of the energy they draw on, wasting 60 percent. Very often, this wasted energy escapes as heat, or thermal energy, from inefficient technology that fails to harvest that potential power. Now a team at the University of Massachusetts Amherst led by chemist Dhandapani Venkataraman, “DV,” and electrical engineer Zlatan Aksamija, report this month in Nature Communications on an advance they outline toward more efficient, cheaper, polymer-based harvest of heat energy. “It will be a surprise to the field,” DV predicts, “it gives us another key variable we can alter to improve the thermo-electric efficiency of polymers. This should make us, and others, look at polymer thermo-electrics in a new light.” Aksamija explains, “Using polymers to convert thermal energy to electricity by harvesting waste heat has seen an uptick in interest in recent years. Waste heat represents both a problem but also a resource; the more heat your process wastes, the less efficient it is.” Harvesting waste heat is less difficult when there is a local, high-temperature gradient source to work with, he adds, such as a high-grade heat source like a power plant." [...]
"A low-cost, high-performance battery chemistry developed by CU Boulder researchers could one day lead to scalable grid-level storage for wind and solar energy that could help electrical utilities reduce their dependency on fossil fuels. The new innovation, described today in the journal Joule, outlines two aqueous flow batteries, also known as redox flow batteries, which use chromium and organic binding agents to achieve exceptional voltage and high efficiencies. The components are abundant in nature, offering future promise for cost-effective manufacturing. “We’re excited to report some of highest performing battery chemistries ever, beyond previous limits,” said Michael Marshak, senior author of the study and an assistant professor in CU Boulder’s Department of Chemistry. “The materials are low-cost, non-toxic and readily available.” Renewable energy sources provide a growing share of U.S. electrical production, but currently lack a large-scale solution for storing harvested energy and re-deploying it to meet demand during periods when the sun isn’t shining and the wind isn’t blowing. “There are mismatches between supply and demand on the energy grid during the day,” said Marshak, who is also a fellow in the Renewable and Sustainable Energy Institute (RASEI)." [...]
"A research team lead by Osaka University demonstrated how information encoded in the circular polarization of a laser beam can be translated into the spin state of an electron in a quantum dot, each being a quantum bit and a quantum computer candidate. The achievement represents a major step towards a “quantum internet,” in which future computers can rapidly and securely send and receive quantum information. Quantum computers have the potential to vastly outperform current systems because they work in a fundamentally different way. Instead of processing discrete ones and zeros, quantum information, whether stored in electron spins or transmitted by laser photons, can be in a superposition of multiple states simultaneously. Moreover, the states of two or more objects can become entangled, so that the status of one cannot be completely described without this other. Handling entangled states allow quantum computers to evaluate many possibilities simultaneously, as well as transmit information from place to place immune from eavesdropping." [...]
"Seeing was believing until technology reared its mighty head and gave us powerful and inexpensive photo-editing tools. Now, realistic videos that map the facial expressions of one person onto those of another, known as deepfakes, present a formidable political weapon. But whether it’s the benign smoothing of a wrinkle in a portrait, or a video manipulated to make it look like a politician saying something offensive, all photo editing leaves traces for the right tools to discover. Research led by Amit Roy-Chowdhury’s Video Computing Group at the University of California, Riverside has developed a deep neural network architecture that can identify manipulated images at the pixel level with high precision. Roy-Chowdhury is a professor of electrical and computer engineering and the Bourns Family Faculty Fellow in the Marlan and Rosemary Bourns College of Engineering. A deep neural network is what artificial intelligence researchers call computer systems that have been trained to do specific tasks, in this case, recognize altered images." [...]
"It has been said that the internet exists chiefly to show videos of cats interacting with boxes. An international team of researchers led by The University of Queensland has extended cats and boxes into the quantum realm, discovering that Schrödinger’s famous dead-and-alive cat is just one of an infinite family of quantum states. ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems UQ PhD candidate Lewis Howard, said the states were all generated using multidimensional boxes called hypercubes. “We found as the hypercubes become larger, they generated Schrödinger-cat-like states with increasingly finer features in phase space, making them more powerful for quantum applications,” Mr Howard said. “Think striped tigers as opposed to tabbies.” Creating these hypercube states – in this case using single particles of light and a tiny mechanical drum – is an important ingredient in quantum technologies. “The Schrödinger Cat state, discovered in 1935, is a quantum superposition of two states, normally referred to as ‘dead’ and ‘alive’." [...]
First-ever visualisations of electrical gating effects on electronic structure could lead to longer-lasting devices
"Electronic structure of a semiconductor device – how it behaves when voltage is applied – visualised for the first time Insights from the technique will help development of high performance electronics with low power consumption University of Warwick and University of Washington led study uses focused light to ‘knock’ electrons out of atoms Helps to pave the way for two dimensional semiconductors in future electronics Scientists have visualised the electronic structure in a microelectronic device for the first time, opening up opportunities for finely-tuned high performance electronic devices. Physicists from the University of Warwick and the University of Washington have developed a technique to measure the energy and momentum of electrons in operating microelectronic devices made of atomically thin, so-called two-dimensional, materials. Using this information, they can create visual representations of the electrical and optical properties of the materials to guide engineers in maximising their potential in electronic components. The experimentally-led study is published in Nature today (17 July) and could also help pave the way for the two dimensional semiconductors that are likely to play a role in the next generation of electronics, in applications such as photovoltaics, mobile devices and quantum computers. The electronic structure of a material describes how electrons behave within that material, and therefore the nature of the current flowing through it. That behaviour can vary depending upon the voltage – the amount of ‘pressure’ on its electrons – applied to the material, and so changes to the electronic structure with voltage determine the efficiency of microelectronic circuits." [...]
"At the Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Dr. Hyunjung Yi of the Post-Silicon Semiconductor Institute and her research team have developed a transfer-printing technology that uses hydrogel and nano ink to create high-performance sensors on flexible substrates of diverse shapes and structures. Withe the popularity of wearable devices including smartwatches and fitness bands that are attached directly to the skin, there is growing demand for technologies that allow for the production of high-performance sensors on surfaces of various shapes and types. Transfer printing works in a way similar to that of a tattoo sticker—sticking the tattoo sticker on the skin and then removing the paper backing leaves an image on the skin. The newly developed process creates a structure on one surface and then transfers it to another in a similar way. The most notable advantage of this process is that it largely avoids the difficulties involved in creating devices directly on substrates that are thermally and/or chemically sensitive, which is why transfer printing is widely used for the manufacturing of flexible devices. On the other hand, the primary disadvantage of the current transfer printing processes is that they can usually only be used for substrates with flat surfaces." [...]
"When a fluid, such as water or air, flows fast enough, it will experience turbulence – seemingly random changes in velocity and pressure within the fluid. Turbulence is extremely difficult to study but is important for many fields of engineering, such as air flow past wind turbines or jet engines. Understanding turbulence better would allow engineers to design more efficient turbine blades, for example, or make more aerodynamic shapes for Formula 1 cars. However, current engineering models of turbulence often rely upon ‘empirical’ relationships based on previous observations of turbulence to predict what will happen, rather than a full understanding of the underlying physics. This is because the underlying physics is immensely complicated, leaving many questions that seem simple unsolved. Now, researchers at Imperial College London have used supercomputers, running simulations on graphics processors originally developed for gaming, to solve a longstanding question in turbulence." [...]
"A team of researchers from the Universities of Manchester, Nottingham and Loughborough have discovered quantum phenomena that helps to understand the fundamental limits of graphene electronics. As published in Nature Communications, the work describes how electrons in a single atomically-thin sheet of graphene scatter off the vibrating carbon atoms which make up the hexagonal crystal lattice. By applying a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of graphene, the current-carrying electrons are forced to move in closed circular “cyclotron” orbits. In pure graphene, the only way in which an electron can escape from this orbit is by bouncing off a “phonon” in a scattering event. These phonons are particle-like bundles of energy and momentum and are the “quanta” of the sound waves associated with the vibrating carbon atom. The phonons are generated in increasing numbers when the graphene crystal is warmed up from very low temperatures." [...]
"For the first time, a team of researchers, from the School of Materials and the National Graphene Institute at The the University of Manchester have formulated inks using the 2D material MXene, to produce 3D printed interdigitated electrodes. As published in Advanced Materials, these inks have been used to 3D print electrodes that can be used in energy storages devices such as supercapacitors. MXene, a ‘clay-like’ two-dimensional material composed of early transition metals (such as titanium) and carbon atoms, was first developed by Drexel University. However, unlike most clays, MXene shows high electrical conductivity upon drying and is hydrophilic, allowing them to be easily dispersed in aqueous suspensions and inks. Graphene was the world’s first two-dimensional material, more conductive than copper, many more times stronger than steel, flexible, transparent and one million times thinner than the diameter of a human hair. Since its isolation, graphene has opened the doors for the exploration of other two-dimensional materials, each with a range of different properties." [...]
"A wireless, wearable monitor built with stretchable electronics could allow comfortable, long-term health monitoring of adults, babies and small children without concern for skin injury or allergic reactions caused by conventional adhesive sensors with conductive gels. The soft and conformable monitor can broadcast electrocardiogram (ECG), heart rate, respiratory rate and motion activity data as much as 15 meters to a portable recording device such as a smartphone or tablet computer. The electronics are mounted on a stretchable substrate and connected to gold, skin-like electrodes through printed connectors that can stretch with the medical film in which they are embedded. “This health monitor has a key advantage for young children who are always moving, since the soft conformal device can accommodate that activity with a gentle integration onto the skin,” said Woon-Hong Yeo, an assistant professor in the George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering and Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology. “This is designed to meet the electronic health monitoring needs of people whose sensitive skin may be harmed by conventional monitors.” Details of the monitor were reported July 24 in the journal Advanced Science. The research was supported by the Imlay Innovation Fund at Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, NextFlex (Flexible Hybrid Electronics Manufacturing Institute), and by a seed grant from the Institute for Electronics and Nanotechnology at Georgia Tech." [...]
"Oxide layer atop nanometal layer results in electron shuttle, not corrosion Scientists from Northwestern University and Caltech have produced electricity by simply flowing water over extremely thin layers of inexpensive metals, including iron, that have oxidized. These films represent an entirely new way of generating electricity and could be used to develop new forms of sustainable power production. The films have a conducting metal nanolayer (10 to 20 nanometers thick) that is insulated with an oxide layer (2 nanometers thick). Current is generated when pulses of rainwater and ocean water alternate and move across the nanolayers. The difference in salinity drags the electrons along in the metal below. "It's the oxide layer over the nanometal that really makes this device go," said Franz M. Geiger, the Dow Professor of Chemistry in Northwestern's Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences." [...]
"When Galileo pointed his first telescope at the Milky Way in the early 17th century, he noticed it consists of countless stars. Since that time, studying the properties and history of our Galaxy has absorbed many generations of scientists. Writing in Science, Polish astronomers from the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Warsaw present a unique three-dimensional map of the Milky Way. The map provides insights into the structure and history of our Galaxy. Since the 17th century, astronomers have been aware that the Earth, the Sun, and other planets in the Solar System, together with billions of stars seen with telescopes, form our Galaxy. These stars, if observed far from the city lights, look like milk spilled across the sky and form the band of the Milky Way." [...]
"CMU researchers solve hard problem of 3D printing soft tissue A team of researchers from Carnegie Mellon University has published a paper in Science that details a new technique allowing anyone to 3D bioprint tissue scaffolds out of collagen, the major structural protein in the human body. This first-of-its-kind method brings the field of tissue engineering one step closer to being able to 3D print a full-sized, adult human heart. The technique, known as Freeform Reversible Embedding of Suspended Hydrogels (FRESH), has allowed the researchers to overcome many challenges associated with existing 3D bioprinting methods, and to achieve unprecedented resolution and fidelity using soft and living materials. Each of the organs in the human body, such as the heart, is built from specialized cells that are held together by a biological scaffold called the extracellular matrix (ECM). This network of ECM proteins provides the structure and biochemical signals that cells need to carry out their normal function. However, until now it has not been possible to rebuild this complex ECM architecture using traditional biofabrication methods." [...]
New research highlights similarities in the insulating states of twisted bilayer graphene and cuprates
"In recent decades, enormous research efforts have been expended on the exploration and explanation of high-temperature (high-Tc) superconductors, a class of materials exhibiting zero resistance at particularly high temperatures. Now a team of scientists from the United States, Germany and Japan explains in Nature how the electronic structure in twisted bilayer graphene influences the emergence of the insulating state in these systems, which is the precursor to superconductivity in high-Tc materials. Finding a material which superconducts at room temperature would lead to a technological revolution, alleviate the energy crisis (as nowadays most energy is lost on the way from generation to usage) and boost computing performance to an entirely new level. However, despite the progress made in understanding these systems, a full theoretical description is still elusive, leaving our search for room temperature superconductivity mainly serendipitous. In a major scientific breakthrough in 2018, twisted bilayer graphene (TBLG) was shown to exhibit phases of matter akin to those of a certain class of high-Tc superconducting materials – the so-called high-Tc cuprates. This represents a novel inroad via a much cleaner and more controllable experimental setup." [...]
"Advances in organic phosphorescent materials are opening new opportunities for organic light-emitting diodes for combined electronics and light applications, including solar cells, photodiodes, optical fibers and lasers. While low-dimensional luminescent materials, like the calcium titanium oxide mineral perovskite, have promising optical properties, their performance remains insufficient compared to conventional organic LEDs. A recent study, published in this week’s Applied Physics Reviews, from AIP Publishing, explores a new approach using an exciton confinement effect to optimize highly efficient perovskite LEDs. To achieve an efficient electroluminescent device, it must have a high photoluminescence quantum yield emission layer, efficient electron hole injection and transport layers, and high light out-coupling efficiency. With each new advance in emission layer material, new functional materials are required to realize a more efficient LED. To accomplish this goal, the authors of the study explored the performance of an amorphous zinc-silica-oxide system layered with perovskite crystals to improve the diode performance." [...]
"Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists have developed a new quantum computing algorithm that offers a clearer understanding of the quantum-to-classical transition, which could help model systems on the cusp of quantum and classical worlds, such as biological proteins, and also resolve questions about how quantum mechanics applies to large-scale objects. “The quantum-to-classical transition occurs when you add more and more particles to a quantum system,” said Patrick Coles of the Physics of Condensed Matter and Complex Systems group at Los Alamos National Laboratory, “such that the weird quantum effects go away and the system starts to behave more classically. For these systems, it’s essentially impossible to use a classical computer to study the quantum-to-classical transition. We could study this with our algorithm and a quantum computer consisting of several hundred qubits, which we anticipate will be available in the next few years based on the current progress in the field.” Answering questions about the quantum-to-classical transition is notoriously difficult. For systems of more than a few atoms, the problem rapidly becomes intractable. The number of equations grows exponentially with each added atom." [...]
"Controlling how electrons zip through a material is of central importance to build novel electronic devices. How the electronic motion is affected by magnetic fields is an old problem that has not been fully solved, yet has already led to multiple physics Nobel prizes. Now researchers at the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg have solved one of the long-standing problems in the field, namely how a certain symmetry can be restored. Their results were just published in Physical Review Letters. Electrons moving in a strong magnetic field perform a circular motion due to the Lorentz force, on which electromagnetic induction and the electric motor are based. In the quantum flatland of atomically thin two-dimensional materials, this leads to weird quantum effects like the integer and the fractional quantized Hall effects, which state that the number of Lorentz-deflected charges are not arbitrary but increase in discrete (quantized) steps." [...]
"Rust is a common problem on infrastructure, but new research shows that when it's combined with salt water, it can also be a source of electricity. There are many ways to generate electricity—batteries, solar panels, wind turbines, and hydroelectric dams, to name a few examples. …. And now there's rust. New research conducted by scientists at Caltech and Northwestern University shows that thin films of rust—iron oxide—can generate electricity when saltwater flows over them. These films represent an entirely new way of generating electricity and could be used to develop new forms of sustainable power production." [...]
"Rutgers-led research could help reduce energy use, improve electronic devices When two mesh screens are overlaid, beautiful patterns appear when one screen is offset. These “moiré patterns” have long intrigued artists, scientists and mathematicians and have found applications in printing, fashion and banknotes. Now, a Rutgers-led team has paved the way to solving one of the most enduring mysteries in materials physics by discovering that in the presence of a moiré pattern in graphene, electrons organize themselves into stripes, like soldiers in formation. Their findings, published in the journal Nature, could help in the search for quantum materials, such as superconductors, that would work at room temperature. Such materials would dramatically reduce energy consumption by making power transmission and electronic devices more efficient. “Our findings provide an essential clue to the mystery connecting a form of graphene, called twisted bilayer graphene, to superconductors that could work at room temperature,” said senior author Eva Y. Andrei, Board of Governors professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy in the School of Arts and Sciences at Rutgers University–New Brunswick." [...]
"New research provides a look at how India could meet its climate targets while maintaining economic growth India’s economy is booming, driving up electric power consumption to unprecedented levels. The nation’s installed electricity capacity, which increased fivefold in the past three decades, is expected to triple over the next 20 years. At the same time, India has committed to limiting its carbon dioxide emissions growth; its Paris Agreement climate pledge is to decrease its carbon dioxide emissions intensity of GDP (CO2 emissions per unit of GDP) by 33 to 35 percent by 2030 from 2005 levels, and to boost carbon-free power to about 40 percent of installed capacity in 2030. Can India reach its climate targets without adversely impacting its rate of economic growth — now estimated at 7 percent annually — and what policy strategy would be most effective in achieving that goal? To address these questions, researchers from the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change developed an economy-wide model of India with energy-sector detail, and applied it to simulate the achievement of each component of the nation’s Paris pledge. Representing the emissions intensity target with an economy-wide carbon price and the installed capacity target with a Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS), they assessed the economic implications of three policy scenarios — carbon pricing, an RPS, and a combination of carbon pricing with an RPS." [...]
"Virtual reality (VR) seems so lifelike—until you try to reach out and touch something. Now, researchers have solved this tactile problem—with a new kind of glove that allows wearers to actually feel objects in their artificial environments without clunky machines weighing down their arms. Existing VR gloves mostly allow the users to feel the texture of an object using vibrations. They don’t sense shape, or they require heavy motors or air compressors to put pressure on the users’ hands to do so. In the new study, researchers wanted to make a light, nonrestrictive glove with an open palm that felt natural to wear, while providing realistic feedback when the user touched a virtual object. To create the glove, they outfitted a piece of soft silicone with sensors that detect hand motions and actuators—small silicone bubbles coupled with electrodes to generate an electric force—that provide physical feedback to the user’s fingertips." [...]
A documentação é parte essencial do processo de aprendizagem e a Internet além de artigos interessantes de explorar também tem alguma documentação em formato PDF interessante de ler. Todos os links aqui apresentados são para conteúdo disponibilizado livremente pelo editor do livro.
"Welcome to the first edition of Semiconductor Devices, an open educational resource (OER). The goal of this text, as its name implies, is to allow the reader to become proficient in the analysis and design of circuits utilizing discrete semiconductor devices. It progresses from basic diodes through bipolar and field effect transistors. The text is intended for use in a first or second year course on semiconductors at the Associate or Baccalaureate level. In order to make effective use of this text, students should have already taken coursework in basic DC and AC circuits, and have a solid background in algebra and trigonometry along with exposure to phasors. Calculus is used in certain sections of the text but for the most part it is used for equation derivations and proofs, and is kept to a minimum." [...]
"Welcome to the third edition of this text! The first edition was written circa 1990 and was published by West Publishing. The title was then purchased by Delmar/Thomson/Cengage some years later and a new edition was written around 2000 (although it was never tagged as a second edition). That version added a companion laboratory manual. In the early 2000s the text went from hard cover to soft cover, and in early 2016, Cengage decided to revert the copyright back to me, the original and singular author. Having already produced a number of OER (Open Educational Resource) titles including a microcontroller text using the Arduino platform and numerous laboratory manuals covering DC circuits, AC circuits, Python programming and discrete electronic devices, it was an obvious decision to go the same route with this book." [...]
"This text is designed to introduce and expand upon material related to the C programming language and embedded controllers, and specifically, the Arduino development system and associated Atmel ATmega microcontrollers. It is intended to fit the time constraints of a typical 3 to 4 credit hour course for electrical engineering technology and computer engineering technology programs, although it could also fit the needs of a hardware-oriented course in computer science. As such, the text does not attempt to cover every aspect of the C language, the Arduino system or Atmel AVR microcontrollers. The first section deals with the C language itself. It is assumed that the student is a relative newcomer to the C language but has some experience with another high level language, for example, Python. This means concepts such as conditionals and iteration are already familiar and the student can get up and running fairly quickly." [...]
"This manual is intended for use in a DC electrical circuits course and is appropriate for two and four year electrical engineering technology curriculums. The manual contains sufficient exercises for a typical 15 week course using a two to three hour practicum period. The topics range from basic laboratory procedures and resistor identification through series-parallel circuits, mesh and nodal analysis, superposition, Thevenin’s Theorem, Maximum Power Transfer Theorem, and concludes with an introduction to capacitors and inductors. For equipment, each lab station should include a dual adjustable DC power supply and a quality DMM capable of reading DC voltage, current and resistance. A selection of standard value ¼ watt carbon film resistors ranging from a few ohms to a few mega ohms is required along with 10 kΩ and 100 kΩ potentiometers, 100 nF and 220 nF capacitors, and 1 mH and 10 mH inductors. A decade resistance box may also be useful." [...]
"This manual is intended for use in an AC electrical circuits course and is appropriate for either a two or four year electrical engineering technology curriculum. The manual contains sufficient exercises for a typical 15 week course using a two to three hour practicum period. The topics range from introductory RL and RC circuits and oscilloscope orientation through series-parallel circuits, superposition, Thevenin’s Theorem, Maximum Power Transfer Theorem, and concludes with series and parallel resonance. For equipment, each lab station should include a dual channel oscilloscope (preferably digital), a function generator and a quality DMM. The exercise covering Superposition requires two function generators. For components, a selection of standard value ¼ watt carbon film resistors ranging from a few ohms to a few mega ohms is required along with a selection of film capacitors up to 2.2 µF, and 1 mH and 10 mH inductors." [...]
"This manual is the companion to my OER text Semiconductor Devices: Theory and Application. It is intended for use in introductory semiconductor devices courses and is appropriate for two and four year electrical engineering technology curriculums. The manual contains sufficient exercises for two 15 week courses using a two to three hour practicum period. It assumes familiarity with basic electrical circuit analysis techniques and theorems. The topics cover basic diodes through DC biasing and AC analysis of small signal bipolar and FET amplifiers along with class A and B large signal analysis. For equipment, each lab station should include a dual adjustable DC power supply, a dual trace oscilloscope, a function generator and a quality DMM." [...]
"This manual is intended for use in an introductory computer programming course for electrical engineering technology students. It begins with a basic explanation of schematic capture and simulation tools and proceeds to the Python programming language. Python (version 3.X) was chosen for several reasons. First, it is a modern, open-source programming environment. Second, it has a relatively shallow learning curve meaning that new programming students can get up and running fairly quickly, yet the language is fairly deep and powerful. It is by no means a “toy” language." [...]
"This manual is the companion to the OER (Open Educational Resource) Operational Amplifiers & Linear Integrated Circuits/3E text. It is intended for use in an operational amplifiers course and is appropriate for either a two or four year electrical engineering technology curriculum. The manual contains sufficient exercises for a typical 15 week course using a two to three hour practicum period. The topics cover basic differential amplifiers through active filters. For equipment, each lab station should include a dual adjustable DC power supply, a dual trace oscilloscope, a function generator and a quality DMM. Some exercises also make use of a distortion analyzer and a low distortion generator (generally, THD below 0.01%), although these portions may be bypassed." [...]
"This manual is intended for use in an introductory microprocessor or embedded controller course and is appropriate for two and four year electrical engineering technology curriculums. It utilizes the C programming language and the inexpensive, open-source Arduino hardware platform, specifically, the Arduino Uno which uses an Atmel ATmega 328P processor. The manual contains sufficient exercises for a typical 15 week course using a two to three hour practicum period. Some exercises may require more than one period (in particular, the arbitrary waveform generator). The first portion deals strictly with an introduction to the C language using standard desktop tools. Any reasonable compiler will do, and many are available free of charge." [...]
"Welcome to the first edition of Science of Sound Laboratory Manual, an open educational resource (OER). The goal of this work is to support the lab portion of a general college physics course that focuses on sound, acoustics and audio. It covers a variety of topics including speed of sound, resonance, loudness, basic electricity (in association with loudspeakers and microphones) and the human voice. The following equipment should be available for each lab station: General purpose physics components including mass set, spring, stopwatch, meter stick/tape measure and an L-rod (hanger); electrical test gear including a digital oscilloscope, two sine wave generators, a voltmeter capable of reading dB, a DC power supply, two dynamic microphones such as the Shure SM-58 with mic pre-amps, PVC pipe, a pair of headphones and two raw frame loudspeakers (a 4” to 6” general purpose plus an 8” to 12” woofer). A purpose-built apparatus is required for the Tensioned String exercise along with different gauges of piano wire (long scale bass guitar strings can also be used) and a guitar pickup (a removable acoustic guitar pickup works well). A BNC switch box is handy for the Loudness exercise and is relatively easy to make." [...]
"Welcome to the DC Electrical Circuits Workbook, an open educational resource (OER). The goal of this workbook is to provide a large number of problems and exercises in the area of DC electrical circuits to supplement or replace the exercises found in textbooks. It is offered free of charge under a Creative Commons non-commercial, share-alike with attribution license. The workbook is split into several sections, each with an overview and review of the basic concepts and issues addressed in that section. These are followed by the exercises which are generally divided into four major types: analysis, design, challenge and simulation. Many SPICE-based circuit simulators are available, both free and commercial, that can be used with this workbook." [...]
"Welcome to the AC Electrical Circuits Workbook, an open educational resource (OER). The goal of this workbook is to provide a large number of problems and exercises in the area of AC electrical circuits to supplement or replace the exercises found in textbooks. It is offered free of charge under a Creative Commons non-commercial, share-alike with attribution license. If you are already familiar with the DC Electrical Circuits Workbook, the format of this title is similar. The workbook is split into several sections, each with an overview and review of the basic concepts and issues addressed in that section. These are followed by the exercises which are generally divided into four major types: analysis, design, challenge and simulation." [...]
Diversos Projetos interessantes.
"My wife and I meet friends and family once a week to play Bingo at a local restaurant/bar. We sit at a long table. Facing me is a man with impaired hearing and vision. The room is very noisy and the man often has to ask his wife to repeat many of the numbers called out. So I decided to make the two-unit Bluetooth-coupled system pictured above. On my unit I enter the number called and he sees it on his unit." [...]
"An addictive Arduino game on a 128x64 OLED display. The following elements are needed to make this project: Arduino Nano GY-521 module with the MPU-6050 sensor 0.96" OLED SPI display module 128x64 with SSD1306 chip Buzzer 3mm LED diode 220 Ohm resistor The rules of the game are simple: Tilt the sensor to move the ball around and try to catch as many squares as possible within 1 minute, without touch the borders. Sketch below includes 2 functions: the game, if D7 is connected to GND; and a basic gyro test program that shows the pitch and roll values, shows them in an XY grid, and changes the buzzer pitch according to distance from origin. For the OLED is used the excellent U8G library which allows many fonts and fast graphics. You will need to include 2 files in your sketch folder I2C and Kalman.h, they come with the MPU-6050 example. The scheme is presented in the picture below." [...]
"BigFDM has a printing area of 800 x 800 x 900mm, its BOM is less than $3,000, and can be made in any fablab near to you! We dream in a future of freedom, where open source hardware and fab labs enable people to fully understand how to make things they need, and where decentralized local production is customized to impact the surrounding community. Believing that empowering the user with knowledge about how to make machines, BigFDM wants to give to the world a powerful open source tool, to 3D print any large scale object you may need. And, together with LaserDuo, this is one of the first steps in developing other machines sharing the same philosophy. BigFDM BigFDM is an open source, large scale 3D printer. Taking advantage of what we have learned in Fab Academy, BigFDM has been developed using standard Fab Lab equipment and techniques." [...]
"Making the glasses from Spider-Man: Far From Home almost real! Uneasy lies the head that wears the crown. So in Far From Home Peter gets the torch passed onto him from Stark via some super AR glasses that allow him to see real time data and call in all sorts of super Stark Industries gear. As soon as I saw these in the film I knew I needed to do a project on them so as soon as possible I got my hands on the glasses from eBay and got to work on plans and parts. Lets go. It’s storing energy from the earth’s core!" [...]
"The MidTBot is a small and simple little pen plotter. All of the custom parts are 3D printed. The rest of the parts are low cost and easy to get. The controller uses an ESP32 running Grbl_ESP32 firmware. It can be controlled via USB, Bluetooth or Wifi. You can simply upload gcode files to the unboard SD card and print." [...]
"One day I was wondering: how much electricity is flowing through my apartment right now? Looking online I found various sensor devices like Smappee and Sense, but those are relatively expensive and even require a subscription. So I decided to build my own with an ESP32 and the SCT-013 sensor. My very own Fitbit for electricity consumption! Goal Before jumping in, I set myself these goals for the project: Make a non-invasive energy monitor for the entire apartment. Meaning: no wire-cutting and not putting a meter between every socket and light bulb." [...]
"I have been experimenting using different ESP32 development boards, recently I ordered of the TTGO T-Beam variety which come with a Battery socket to add your own 18650 Lipo, this really takes some of the power regulation complexity out of building a small robot, as it has the battery and charger circuit in place already. However to directly drive something from this board it needed something low powered, so I decided to add some continuous rotation servos I have had for a while. The ESP32 board I used here has a lot of functionality including Lora radio and GPS, which may be useful in the future, but you can get ESP32 boards without these extras which make the board a bit smaller and still come with the 18650 battery holder. So let's start talking about the build. Supplies:4 x Continuous rotation Servos 4 x Wheels that fit on the Servos 1 x strip of 5 x Neopixels if you want to add them. 1 x ESP32 with ideally built in rechargeable battery, or an ESP32 with an external battery." [...]
"The first prototype of any circuit doesn’t always work almost never works 100% like expected and therefore troubleshooting is an essential part of the engineering process. This usually involves taking measurements of the circuit and tweaking things as needed. Commonly this is done with an oscilloscope, just probe the voltage of any signal and see how it changes over time. However in some (rare) situations the light generated by a circuit is the "signal" you care about. Measuring the drive voltage/ current is not always possible and is also inaccurate. Personally I am curious about how the typical 0.96" OLED screen works, especially how the configuration settings, the panel voltage and the segment current effect the light output." [...]
"This is a collaboration with my son, who isn't old enough to have his own instructables account. He had the original idea of a vertical planter system with circulating water. His initial plan was to circulate the water through the dirt in each pot, so that nutrients wouldn't drain out of the pots but be circulated back to the top. He also wanted it to be more like a set of posts. After we talked about it for a bit, we decided it probably wasn't a good idea to run the water through the soil as this would over water the plants and could also clog up the pump. I did some research and we learned about the ancient irrigation method using "ollas", which are clay pots that hold water and slowly leak into the soil." [...]
"RG Tic Tac Toe is a classical game can be made in diverse versions. But, I decided to build it with common cathode RG LEDs of 5mm as monitor of results so that once manipulated the respective switch, the LED shows the result in color red or green instead of cross or circle. " [...]
"I have in my hand a distance laser sensor with high precision and speed. It is used in industrial environments for object positioning or detection applications. According to technical documents, I found it can communicate with other devices via RS485. I spent the weekend to learn it and find ways to communicate with cheap CPU - Arduino. And finally, I succeeded in reading data from it and displaying the distance value on the led screen. " [...]
"In this instructable I show you how I made a simple RFID UID reader which reads the UID of a Mifare RFID card. The program is quite simple and on a breadboard the reader was quickly made. Then I soldered it all on a piece of perf board and I designed an enclosure for it. It has a built-in LiPo charger. Supplies: I bought the components from Aliexpress: - Oled screen (SPI) - MFRC522 RFID module - TP4056 charger IC - Arduino pro mini 3.3V 328P - LiPo battery" [...]
"JumpMan is very simple on Arduino. The game uses only two "jump" and "reset" buttons. The game uses a display HD44780 2x16 connected via i2c. In the game, we skip a man over the trees. The speed of the game is growing all the time. If you do not know how to use the HD44780 display with the i2c module, see the tutorial: HOW TO USE DISPLAY HD44780 i2c ." [...]
"Hi, today I'll explain how to make your own little Weather based Music generator. It's based on an ESP8266, which is kind of like an Arduino, and it responds to temperature, rain and light intensity. Don't expect it to make entire songs or chord progressions. It's more like Generative Music people sometimes make with Modular Synthesizers. But it's a little less random then that, it does stick to certain Scales for instance. Supplies: ESP8266 (I'm using the Feather Huzzah ESP8266 from Adafruit) BME280 Temperature, Humidity and Barometric Pressure Sensor (The I2C Version) Arduino Rain Sensor 25K LDR (Light Dependent Resistor) Some Resistors (two 47, one 100, one 220 and one 1k Ohm) Female Midi Connector (5 Pin Din) suitable for PCB mounting Jumper Wires Breadboard or some sort of Prototyping board Computer, I'll be using one running Windows 8.1, but it should work on any OS as far as I know." [...]
"Using a YubiKey (or other USB security token) to unlock physical things. While researching locks and lockable storage for a new premise I found lots of LockPicking information about how to hack and break into products from even renowned companies. It’s not only a waste of money buying “high security” products which could be unlocked by just a paper clip like shown in this Video but might also be dangerous. At the same time I use my YubiKey daily with IT systems and services. So I thought to myself: “Why not use a YubiKey as a key for physical storage/property?”. So I started another research, if, how and with how much effort a lock for physical things could be designed which uses a standard USB security token as key." [...]
"While I was working on the power meter function for the latest version of the SNA, I used several fixed attenuators for checking linearity and calibration. It would be a lot easier if I had a variable step attenuator. I have several digital controlled attenuator modules that I bought one eBay a while ago, and I guess it is time to use some of them. There are several models available. The ones I plan on using are the simplest with only 6 control pins for a total attenuation of 31.5 dB in .5 dB steps. I am going to connect two in series with the control lines paralleled for a total of 63 dB in 1 dB steps." [...]
"Using 2 ATmega328s, this clock displays and decodes the DCF77 signal using 150 LEDs and 4x 7 segment display modules on a 12" (305mm) dial. This Clock displays the DCF77 time code on 2 rings of 60 LEDs on a large 12" (305mm) diameter dial. The inner ring shows the live time code for the next minute as it is received and the outer ring shows the current time as long as the previous minute was received error free. A further 24 LEDs show decoder status and time info. Decoded time and date are shown on 2 large 8 digit 7 segment displays while DCF77 pulse timings and bit information are shown on a further 2 smaller 8 digit 7 segment displays. The clock uses 2 x Atmega 328 microprocessors (Arduino Uno) , 1 to control the DCF77 Analyzer and 1 to control a Udo Klein Super Filter." [...]
"Rotary phones are fun, the inginuity of the dial in combination with the phone centrals elektromechanical logic made it possible to allow telecommunications to evolve. These wonderfull devices are now disapearing from our desks (for many good reasons). But wouldn't it be nice if you could still use a device like this to open up your webbrowser and visit your favorite website with just a single dial. Or perhaps dial a complete IP address and visit that. And ofcourse for some basic calculations you can also use your phone as an input device. Keep in mind that this project is a gadget, a gag, a joke." [...]
"This angler fish can sense what kind of prey it's about to eat! But what's extra special about this project is that it is made with DIY, low-fidelity sensors. Using simple materials like cardboard and circuit paint you can create your own ultra-custom sensors for just about anything you want. The Hangry Angler is a great project to get started with roll-your-own sensors. Follow along and then remix it for your own sensing project! Supplies: - Circuit Paint (i.e." [...]
"Motivation I'm planning to build my own home automation system with an ESP32 as the main microprocessor. So I was looking for a fun project to test it's capabilities and to get to know it's good and bad sides. I bought my daughter an Etch A Sketch but it turned out she is too young to play with it and I'm myself really bad in controlling it. So my idea was that I could implement a joystick so my daughter could play with it easily. I found some builds what have done this already. So I needed to add something extra to make it special." [...]
""Colossus Micro" is an animated light display in a portable size. It uses a "P5" LED panel that is controlled by a Raspberry Pi Zero W. Here are its features: Convenient size (12 x 6") Full color, high resolution LED display (2,048 pixels) Great for a tabletop display for trade/craft shows, displaying eye catching information, and anywhere that benefits from a bright, colorful display Wifi controllable from your smart phone or laptop (built-in wifi "hotspot") Battery powered using an internal rechargeable battery (also runs from a wall outlet) Displays static text/graphics, moving text, and animations Animations and graphics created on your laptop/computer with xLights, then uploaded wirelessly to the display Self contained (via included mounting bracket and cover) Easy to assemble (minimal soldering) P5 panels are a good way to get into the world of LEDs and pixels. They are easy to setup and instantly rewarding; you can display anything on them from text, animations, and video. A P5 panel has multi-color LEDs arranged in a grid on a rectangular base. There are three LEDs per "pixel", the colors mixing together to form a single color of light. The "5" in P5 means that pixels are space 5mm apart." [...]
"Hi everyone! By the end of this tutorial you will know how to create your own LED wall. This tutorial is based on a summer program offered at Sacred Heart University. Have fun! " [...]
"I decided to make a security multisensor after we were robbed while living in the jungle of Ecuador. We now live in another city but I wanted way to receive notifications for any activity in our home. I've seen a lot sensors connected that weren't attractive and I wanted to make something that was not only functional but also was interesting in our home. The LEDs can be configured to respond to the temperature or motion alerts. This project includes Digital temperature and humidity monitoring, passive infrared motion detection, and loud noise detection for windows breaking, dogs barking, etc. I've included all of the 3-D files needed to complete this project identical to mine." [...]
"The MMI 5300 was a memory chip from the early 1970s, storing 1024 bits in tiny fuses.1 Unlike regular RAM chips, this was a PROM (Programmable Read-Only Memory); you programmed it once by blowing fuses and then it held that data permanently. The chip I examined originally cost $70 and was built by MMI (Monolithic Memories Incorporated), a leading PROM manufacturer at the time. The highly magnified photo below shows the chip's silicon die. The metal layer on top of the silicon is most visible in this photo; the transistors and resistors fabricated from silicon are underneath. The wires around the edges are the 16 bond wires between the silicon die and the external pins. In the upper left, the 1024 bits of data are stored in a 33×33 array of diodes and fuses." [...]
"This guide is focused on helping students who have never sewn learn some hand sewing tips, AND sew their first circuit! With this project, your students will make their learning visible. Plus, it is a really easy project for students new to sewing, but will still appeal to an expert. You will share a simple circuit template, so students can sew power from a battery to an LED, but also let them add their own artistic flair around the light with fabric paint, markers, embroidery floss, etc. I like to share embroidery tips in this starter lesson with students and here is a great guide to help you share different types of stitches. Supplies: Embroidery Hoops, Fabric (Buy thin white fabric remnants or tea towels), Conductive Thread, Sewable LEDs or 5 mm LEDs, 3D printed battery holders, Conductive Fabric Tape also known as Shielding Fabric Tape" [...]
"The Oshman Engineering Design Kitchen (OEDK) is the largest makerspace at Rice University, providing a space for all students to design and prototype solutions to real-world challenges. To serve this purpose, the OEDK houses a number of power tools and large machinery that produce loud, potentially unsafe noises. While the OEDK has successfully established a culture of safety around eye protection and gloves, it has been unable to establish the same culture of safety around hearing protection, due to the fact that users are unsure of when hearing protection is required. Our team, Ring the Decibels, aims to solve this problem by designing, building, and implementing an alert system that advises OEDK users to wear appropriate hearing protection at unsafe sound levels. " [...]
"Here is the finished Seven Segment Tester. All of the available Arduino Nano pins, except for analog input pins A6,A7 and Serial Port pins D0 and D1 are connected. This leaves us with 18 pins to bring to the 3M Zero Insertion Force (ZIF) socket. Any display up to 9 pin DIP can be tested. Here are some pictures of the device testing a 16 segment display, a 7 segment display and a 3 digit 7 segment display. The common cathode and common anode versions are programmed as test patterns." [...]
"The Switch Box (IS6DB2032) is a low cost wireless Arduino IDE compatible (the Atmel ATMega328P) microcontroller with HopeRF RFM69 868\915 or NRF24L01+ 2.4 GHz radio on-board. Best sutable for Home Automation, IOT. Could be used as switch board for radio controlling any DIY project. " [...]
"Build a simple spectrometer out of LEDs to see what wavelengths are in different types of light! Orbiting Earth at 250 miles up, the crew aboard the International Space Station is exposed to higher levels of radiation in space than on Earth because they are outside Earth's protective magnetic field. For humans on Earth and in space, radiation can be a scary concept! Most types of radiation are invisible to our eyes and some of it can cause harm to the human body. However, not all radiation is harmful and we need radiation to live and to see! For this project, our goal was to teach students of all ages what electromagnetic radiation is, how we measure it, and the difference between harmless and harmful radiation." [...]
"The Work Logger helps you log your daily work without any effort - no more spreadsheets needed. Story The Work Logger is a little everyday helper to log my working time. It tracks WHEN I am doing WHAT. And it does this with just little turn of a knob. Problem As a business analyst, I work in different projects. And in those projects I do different things." [...]
"I recently converted a mountain bike to an electric bike. The conversion went relatively smoothly, so upon completing the project, I hopped on and set out for a shakedown cruise. I kept my eye on the battery charge indicator, not knowing how far to expect the bike to run on battery power. About the time that the power meter showed 80% with me feeling pretty good, because I had gone a long ways, I ground to a halt with a dead battery. An unhappy call to the manufacturer resulted in words like Oh, the battery indicator really isnt good for much the technology just isnt there yet. I needed better than that." [...]
"This is document is a sort of How to guide slash documentation that goes through process it took me to understand the concepts to achieve my goal of building a simple quadcopter that I could control from my mobile phone. To do this project I wanted to get an idea of what a drone actually is, in my case a quadcopter, so I started doing some research. I watched a lot of YouTube videos, read a bunch of articles and Insructible pages and this is what I got. Essentially you can split a drone into two parts. I called it the Physical and the Controller. The Physical is essentially everything that has to do with the mechanics that makes the drone fly." [...]
That's all Folks!