2019-04-18 - Nº 207
Esta é a Newsletter Nº 207 que se apresenta com o mesmo formato que as anteriores. Se gostar da Newsletter partilhe-a!
Todas as Newsletters encontram-se indexadas no link.
Esta Newsletter tem os seguintes tópicos:
Faz hoje anos que nascia, em 1838, Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran. Este químico francês desenvolveu métodos espectroscópicos aperfeiçoados que tinham sido desenvolvidos por Kirchhoff. Em 1859, ele começou a examinar minerais em busca de linhas espectrais desconhecidas. Quinze anos de persistência compensaram quando ele descobriu os elementos gálio (1875), samario (1880) e disprósio (1886). Ele acompanhado de Robert Bunsen, Gustav Kirchhoff e William Crookes classifica-se como um dos fundadores da ciência da espectroscopia. Guiado pela organização de linhas espectrais para elementos da mesma família, ele acreditava que o elemento que ele chamava de gálio (em homenagem à França) era o eka-alumínio previsto por Mendeleiev entre o alumínio e o índio. Uma vez que é líquido entre cerca de 30 - 1700C, um termómetro de quartzo de gálio pode medir altas temperaturas.
Faz também anos hoje que nascia, em 1863, Hugh Longbourne Callendar. Este Físico inglês ficou famoso pelo trabalho em calorimetria, termometria e, principalmente, as propriedades termodinâmicas do vapor. Ele publicou as primeiras tabelas de vapor (1915). Em 1886, ele inventou o termómetro de resistência de platina usando a resistividade eléctrica da platina, permitindo a medição precisa de temperaturas. Ele também inventou o calorímetro de fluxo contínuo eléctrico, o termómetro de ar compensado (1891), uma balança de rádio (1910) e um termómetro de rolamento (1897) que permitiram a obtenção de dados de temperatura climática de longa duração. O seu filho, Guy S. Callendar, relacionou a mudança climática com o aumento do dióxido de carbono (CO2) resultante da queima de combustíveis de carbono (1938), conhecido como efeito Callendar, parte do efeito de estufa.
Faz igualmente anos hoje que nascia, em 1882, Julius Edgar Lilienfeld. Este físico e engenheiro electrónico americano-austro-húngaro, foi o inventor original do transístor de efeito de campo (FET) (1925) e do condensador electrolítico (1931).
Por fim, faz anos hoje que nascia, em 1911, Maurice Goldhaber. Este Físico austro-americano inventou uma experiência para mostrar que os neutrinos sempre giram numa direcção (somente no sentido contra os ponteiros do relógio). O seu método era simples, elegante e usava um aparelho pequeno o suficiente para caber numa bancada, em vez de usar um enorme acelerador. Ele também descobriu que o núcleo do átomo de deutério consiste num protão e um neutrão.
Nesta semana que passou ficámos a conhecer uma nova forma de fazer contas de multiplicar. Ao dividir números grandes em números menores, os investigadores reescreveram um limite matemático fundamental de velocidade. O método aprendido na escola primária ou o método de "transporte" exige cerca de n^2 etapas, em que n é o número de dígitos de cada um dos números que se está a multiplicar. Portanto, números de três dígitos exigem nove multiplicações, enquanto números de 100 dígitos exigem 10.000 multiplicações. Outros métodos foram entretanto desenvolvidos dos quais se destacam o do matemático russo Anatoly Karatsuba que envolve a separação de um número e a recombinação de um novo modo que permite substituir um pequeno número de adições e subtracções por um grande número de multiplicações. O método economiza tempo porque a adição leva apenas 2*n etapas, ao contrário das etapas n^2. Posteriormente outros métodos foram apresentados por Arnold Schönhage e Volker Strassen que publicaram um método capaz de multiplicar grandes números em passos multiplicativos n x log n x log (log n), onde log n é o logaritmo de n. O método de Schönhage e Strassen, que é como os computadores multiplicam grandes números, teve outras duas importantes consequências a longo prazo. Primeiro, introduziu o uso de uma técnica do campo de processamento de sinal chamado de Fast Fourier Transformation. A técnica tem sido a base para todos os algoritmos de multiplicação rápida desde então.
Esta semana que passou ficámos também a saber que a maior aeronave do mundo voa pela primeira vez o seu voo de teste sobre o Deserto de Mojave. O avião Stratolaunch com um desenho de fuselagem dupla e envergadura maior do que o comprimento de um campo de futebol americano, levantou voo a 0658 PDT do Mojave Air & Space Port. Alcançando uma velocidade máxima de 189 milhas por hora, o avião voou por 2,5 horas sobre o Deserto de Mojave a altitudes de até 17.000 pés. Como parte do voo inicial, os pilotos avaliaram o desempenho da aeronave e as qualidades de manuseio antes de pousar com sucesso no Mojave Air and Space Port. A aeronave Stratolaunch é uma plataforma de lançamento móvel que permitirá acesso ao espaço aéreo de forma conveniente, acessível e rotineira. A ala central reforçada pode suportar vários veículos de lançamento, que podem pesar até um total de 225 toneladas.
Na Newsletter desta semana apresentamos diversos projetos de maker assim como um modelo 3D que poderá ser útil. É apresentada a revista Hackpace nº 18 e o livro "An Introduction to C & GUI Programming".
João Alves ([email protected])
O conteúdo da Newsletter encontra-se sob a licença Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Novidades da Semana
"By chopping up large numbers into smaller ones, researchers have rewritten a fundamental mathematical speed limit. Four thousand years ago, the Babylonians invented multiplication. Last month, mathematicians perfected it. On March 18, two researchers described the fastest method ever discovered for multiplying two very large numbers. The paper marks the culmination of a long-running search to find the most efficient procedure for performing one of the most basic operations in math. “Everybody thinks basically that the method you learn in school is the best one, but in fact it’s an active area of research,” said Joris van der Hoeven, a mathematician at the French National Center for Scientific Research and one of the co-authors." [...]
"World’s largest aircraft takes to the sky for its test flight over Mojave Desert Stratolaunch Systems Corporation, founded by Paul G. Allen, today successfully completed the first flight of the world’s largest all-composite aircraft, the Stratolaunch. With a dual fuselage design and wingspan greater than the length of an American football field, the Stratolaunch aircraft took flight at 0658 PDT from the Mojave Air & Space Port. Achieving a maximum speed of 189 miles per hour, the plane flew for 2.5 hours over the Mojave Desert at altitudes up to 17,000 feet. As part of the initial flight, the pilots evaluated aircraft performance and handling qualities before landing successfully back at the Mojave Air and Space Port. “What a fantastic first flight,” said Jean Floyd, CEO of Stratolaunch. “Today’s flight furthers our mission to provide a flexible alternative to ground launched systems." [...]
"IoT sensors are being infused into just about everything, from industrial equipment to consumer devices, and increasingly these devices are connecting to the cloud. By 2020, Gartner predicts there will be more than 20 billion connected devices*. In April 2018, we announced we’re investing $5 billion in IoT and the intelligent edge over the next four years. Since then, we’ve been making a number of investments from product innovation – including Azure Sphere, Azure Digital Twins, Azure IoT Edge, Azure Maps and Azure IoT Central – new partnerships with DJI, SAP, PTC, Qualcomm and Carnegie Mellon University for IoT and edge app development, and programs to help drive the next wave of innovation for our customers. Express Logic logoToday, I am incredibly excited to share we have acquired Express Logic, a leader in real time operating systems (RTOS) for IoT and edge devices powered by microcontroller units (MCUs). Express Logic’s ThreadX RTOS has over 6.2 billion deployments, making it one of the most deployed RTOS in the world per VDC Research." [...]
"It landed on its drone ship, but the ocean was too rough to keep it there SpaceX successfully landed the center core of its Falcon Heavy rocket on a drone ship last week, but the vehicle accidentally fell into the ocean while in transit to the Florida coast. The company blamed the loss on choppy seas. “Over the weekend, due to rough sea conditions, SpaceX’s recovery team was unable to secure the center core booster for its return trip to Port Canaveral,” SpaceX said in a statement to The Verge. “As conditions worsened with eight to ten foot swells, the booster began to shift and ultimately was unable to remain upright. While we had hoped to bring the booster back intact, the safety of our team always takes precedence. We do not expect future missions to be impacted.” The center core is a modified Falcon 9 booster — one of three that make up the Falcon Heavy rocket." [...]
"768k Day expected within the month, reminiscent of 512k Day when AT&T, BT, Comcast, Sprint, and Verizon all went down. An internet milestone known as "768k Day" is getting closer and some network administrators are shaking in their boots fearing downtime caused by outdated network equipment. The fear is justified, and many companies have taken precautions to update old routers, but some cascading failures are still predicted. WHAT IS 768K DAY? The term 768k Day comes from the original mother of all internet outages known as 512k Day. 512k Day happened on August 12, 2014, when hundreds of ISPs from all over the world went down, causing billions of dollars in damages due to lost trade and fees, from a lack of internet connectivity or packet loss." [...]
"Canonical today announced the release of Ubuntu 19.04, focused on open infrastructure deployments, the developer desktop, IoT, and cloud to edge software distribution. “The open-source-first on Ubuntu movement in telco, finance, and media has spread to other sectors. From the public cloud to the private data center to the edge appliance or cluster, open source has become the reference for efficiency and innovation. Ubuntu 19.04 includes the leading projects to underpin that transition, and the developer tooling to accelerate the applications for those domains” said Mark Shuttleworth, CEO of Canonical. Open infrastructure from cloud to edge Ubuntu 19.04 integrates recent innovations from key open infrastructure projects – like OpenStack, Kubernetes, and Ceph – with advanced life-cycle management for multi-cloud and on-prem operations – from bare metal, VMware and OpenStack to every major public cloud. OpenStack Stein brings AI and NFV hardware acceleration with GPGPU and FPGA passthrough." [...]
"New 8th Gen Intel Core vPro Processors Deliver Better Performance, Long Battery Life, Blazing Fast Wi-Fi 6 and Built-In Security Features with Intel Hardware Shield The emerging workplace is more mobile than ever and rapidly evolving as office walls disintegrate. In fact, 70% of people globally work remotely at least once a week1. From the road warrior to the heavy data-crunching office worker, the PC, as the primary tool for getting work done, has to adapt to their diverse needs. Information technology (IT) managers face critical decisions to ensure their organizations’ IT health and employee satisfaction. From data security to deploying the latest Windows 10* version, IT managers face internal and external challenges to keep their technology fleet up to date. Add to that their need to manage a heterogeneous device environment and there are many issues to potentially hinder end-user productivity." [...]
Samsung Successfully Completes 5nm EUV Development to Allow Greater Area Scaling and Ultra-low Power Benefits
"Samsung Electronics makes major strides in EUV-based advanced nodes, including 7nm mass production and 6nm customer tape-out Samsung Electronics, a world leader in advanced semiconductor technology, today announced that its 5-nanometer (nm) FinFET process technology is complete in its development and now is ready for customers’ samples. By adding another cutting-edge node to its extreme ultraviolet (EUV)-based process offerings, Samsung is proving once again its leadership in the advanced foundry market. Compared to 7nm, Samsung’s 5nm FinFET process technology provides up to a 25 percent increase in logic area efficiency with 20 percent lower power consumption or 10 percent higher performance as a result of process improvement to enable us to have more innovative standard cell architecture. In addition to power performance area (PPA) improvements from 7nm to 5nm, customers can fully leverage Samsung’s highly sophisticated EUV technology. Like its predecessor, 5nm uses EUV lithography in metal layer patterning and reduces mask layers while providing better fidelity. Another key benefit of 5nm is that we can reuse all the 7nm intellectual property (IP) to 5nm." [...]
"The AMD Ryzen™ Embedded R1000 SoC provides a new class of performance for the embedded industry with 3X performance per watt vs. previous AMD R-Series SoC1 and 4X performance per dollar compared to the competition At the Taiwan Embedded Forum, AMD (NASDAQ: AMD) announced the Ryzen™ embedded product family is growing with the new AMD Ryzen™ Embedded R1000 SoC. Building upon the success of the Ryzen™ Embedded V1000 SoC, the AMD Ryzen Embedded R1000 SoC provides embedded customers with dual core, quad-threaded performance, as well as the ability to run fanless, low power solutions for 4K displays; while providing leading-edge security features. The AMD Ryzen Embedded R1000 is perfect for applications in digital displays, high-performance edge computing, networking, thin clients and more. Customers like Advantech, ASRock Industrial, IBASE, Netronome, Quixant and others are already working on Ryzen Embedded R1000-based products. As well, Atari© is using the high-performance Vega 3 graphics and ‘Zen’ CPU architecture in the AMD Ryzen Embedded R1000 SoC to power the upcoming Atari VCS™ game system. “The AMD Ryzen Embedded R1000 builds out the Ryzen Embedded family and provides a compelling option for customers that want access to the powerful ‘Zen’ and ‘Vega’ architecture and are looking for a highly competitive power/performance solution,” said Stephen Turnbull, director of product management and business development, Embedded Solutions, AMD." [...]
Ciência e Tecnologia
"A collaboration led by ICIQ’s Palomares group deepens the understanding of the impact that changing the materials in a perovskite solar cell has on its performance. The results, published in the peer-reviewed journal Energy & Environmental Science, will help rationalize the design of the components of cells, thus increasing their commercial appeal. Perovskite-based solar cells are the fastest-advancing solar technology to date. Since they were first used in 2009, perovskite solar cells have achieved high efficiencies (over 22% under standard solar irradiation) at low production costs. Although most of the perovskite components are optimized, there’s still room for improvement. Especially in reference to the Hole Transport Materials (HTMs) employed." [...]
"Scientists have revealed the precise molecular mechanisms that cause drops of liquid to combine, in a discovery that could have a range of applications. Insights into how droplets merge could help make 3D printing technologies more accurate and may help improve the forecasting of thunderstorms and other weather events, the study suggests. A team of researchers from the Universities of Warwick and Edinburgh ran molecular simulations on a supercomputer to analyse interactions between tiny ripples that form on the surface of droplets. These ripples – known as thermal-capillary waves – are too small to be detected by the naked eye or by using the most advanced experimental techniques. Researchers found that these tiny waves cross the gap between nearby droplets and make the first contact between them. Once the droplets have touched, liquid molecules draw the two surfaces together like the zip on a jacket, the team says." [...]
"Hydrogen is a clean and renewable energy carrier that can power vehicles, with water as the only emission. Unfortunately, hydrogen gas is highly flammable when mixed with air, so very efficient and effective sensors are needed. Now, researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, present the first hydrogen sensors ever to meet the future performance targets for use in hydrogen powered vehicles. The researchers’ ground-breaking results were recently published in the prestigious scientific journal Nature Materials. The discovery is an optical nanosensor encapsulated in a plastic material. The sensor works based on an optical phenomenon – a plasmon – which occurs when metal nanoparticles are illuminated and capture visible light. The sensor simply changes colour when the amount of hydrogen in the environment changes." [...]
"Kayak paddles, snowshoes, skateboards. Outdoor sporting goods used to be a tough market for 3D printing to break into, but fused particle fabrication (FPF) can change that. A team led by engineers from Michigan Technological University and re:3D, Inc. developed and tested the Gigabot X, an open source industrial FPF 3D printer, which can use waste plastic particles and reform it into large, strong prints. Because of the unique challenges presented by sporting goods — size, durability, specificity — the team chose several Upper Peninsula-inspired items. In their new paper, published in Additive Manufacturing (DOI: 10.1016/j.addma.2019. 03.006) the team lays out how fab labs, which are prototyping and technical workshops that allow personal digital fabrication, and other 3D printing hubs like makerspaces, public libraries or schools, can economically sustain themselves while printing environmentally friendly products using FPF." [...]
"Scientists from Stony Brook University, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory, and DOE’s Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) are collaborating on an experiment that puts U.S. quantum networking research on the international map. Researchers, including Stony Brook’s Eden Figueroa, have built a quantum network testbed that connects several buildings on the Brookhaven Lab campus using unique portable quantum entanglement sources and an existing DOE ESnet communications fiber network—a significant step in building a large-scale quantum network that can transmit information over long distances. “In quantum mechanics, the physical properties of entangled particles remain associated, even when separated by vast distances. Thus, when measurements are performed on one side, it also affects the other,” said Kerstin Kleese van Dam, director of Brookhaven Lab’s Computational Science Initiative (CSI). “To date, this work has been successfully demonstrated with entangled photons separated by approximately 11 miles. This is one of the largest quantum entanglement distribution networks in the world, and the longest-distance entanglement experiment in the United States.” This quantum networking testbed project includes staff from CSI and Brookhaven’s Instrumentation Division and Physics Department, as well as faculty and students from Stony Brook University." [...]
"Counting search queries isn’t easy, but MIT CSAIL’s new LearnedSketch system for “frequency-estimation” aims to help. If you look under the hood of the internet, you’ll find lots of gears churning along that make it all possible. For example, take a company like AT&T. They have to intimately understand what internet data are going where so that they can better accommodate different levels of usage. But it isn’t practical to precisely monitor every packet of data, because companies simply don’t have unlimited amounts of storage space. (Researchers actually call this the “Britney Spears problem,” named for search engines’ long-running efforts to tally trending topics.)" [...]
"A study in Nano Letters reports on the development of a graphene-enabled detector for terahertz light that is faster and more sensitive than existing room-temperature technologies. Detecting terahertz (THz) light is extremely useful for two main reasons. Firstly, THz technology is becoming a key element in applications regarding security (such as airport scanners), wireless data communication, and quality control, to mention just a few. However, current THz detectors have shown strong limitations in terms of simultaneously meeting the requirements for sensitivity, speed, spectral range, being able to operate at room temperature, etc. Secondly, it is a very safe type of radiation due to its low-energy photons, with more than a hundred times less energy than that of photons in the visible light range. Many graphene-based applications are expected to emerge from its use as material for detecting light." [...]
"Researchers free up more bandwidth by compressing “objects” within the memory hierarchy. A novel technique developed by MIT researchers rethinks hardware data compression to free up more memory used by computers and mobile devices, allowing them to run faster and perform more tasks simultaneously. Data compression leverages redundant data to free up storage capacity, boost computing speeds, and provide other perks. In current computer systems, accessing main memory is very expensive compared to actual computation. Because of this, using data compression in the memory helps improve performance, as it reduces the frequency and amount of data programs need to fetch from main memory. Memory in modern computers manages and transfers data in fixed-size chunks, on which traditional compression techniques must operate." [...]
"The first-of-its-kind nanogenerator designed by UCLA researchers and colleagues also acts as a weather station. UCLA researchers and colleagues have designed a new device that creates electricity from falling snow. The first of its kind, this device is inexpensive, small, thin and flexible like a sheet of plastic. “The device can work in remote areas because it provides its own power and does not need batteries,” said senior author Richard Kaner, who holds UCLA’s Dr. Myung Ki Hong Endowed Chair in Materials Innovation. “It’s a very clever device — a weather station that can tell you how much snow is falling, the direction the snow is falling, and the direction and speed of the wind.” The researchers call it a snow-based triboelectric nanogenerator, or snow TENG. A triboelectric nanogenerator, which generates charge through static electricity, produces energy from the exchange of electrons." [...]
"ETH researchers have integrated two CRISPR-Cas9-based core processors into human cells. This represents a huge step towards creating powerful biocomputers. Controlling gene expression through gene switches based on a model borrowed from the digital world has long been one of the primary objectives of synthetic biology. The digital technique uses what are known as logic gates to process input signals, creating circuits where, for example, output signal C is produced only when input signals A and B are simultaneously present. To date, biotechnologists had attempted to build such digital circuits with the help of protein gene switches in cells. However, these had some serious disadvantages: they were not very flexible, could accept only simple programming, and were capable of processing just one input at a time, such as a specific metabolic molecule." [...]
"Materials could boost battery performance in consumer electronics, electric vehicles, and more Creating a lithium-ion battery that can charge in a matter of minutes but still operate at a high capacity is possible, according to research from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute just published in Nature Communications. This development has the potential to improve battery performance for consumer electronics, solar grid storage, and electric vehicles. A lithium-ion battery charges and discharges as lithium ions move between two electrodes, called an anode and a cathode. In a traditional lithium-ion battery, the anode is made of graphite, while the cathode is composed of lithium cobalt oxide. These materials perform well together, which is why lithium-ion batteries have become increasingly popular, but researchers at Rensselaer believe the function can be enhanced further. “The way to make batteries better is to improve the materials used for the electrodes,” said Nikhil Koratkar, professor of mechanical, aerospace, and nuclear engineering at Rensselaer, and corresponding author of the paper." [...]
"Engineered heart completely matches the immunological, cellular, biochemical and anatomical properties of the patient In a major medical breakthrough, Tel Aviv University researchers have "printed" the world's first 3D vascularised engineered heart using a patient's own cells and biological materials. Their findings were published on April 15 in a study in Advanced Science. Until now, scientists in regenerative medicine — a field positioned at the crossroads of biology and technology — have been successful in printing only simple tissues without blood vessels. "This is the first time anyone anywhere has successfully engineered and printed an entire heart replete with cells, blood vessels, ventricles and chambers," says Prof. Tal Dvir of TAU's School of Molecular Cell Biology and Biotechnology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology and Sagol Center for Regenerative Biotechnology, who led the research for the study. Heart disease is the leading cause of death among both men and women in the United States. Heart transplantation is currently the only treatment available to patients with end-stage heart failure." [...]
"With user facilities, researchers devise novel battery chemistries to help make fluoride batteries a reality. The Science Energy-dense fluoride batteries are exciting, but they only work at high temperatures. A collaboration of researchers recently discovered a new liquid electrolyte. It conducts fluoride in fluoride-based rechargeable batteries at room temperature. These batteries pack a major energy punch. As part of the study, the team used three Department of Energy user facilities." [...]
"A tiny, portable radar device could allow visually impaired people, or unmanned moving devices to detect objects in real time. Radar technology has been used for decades in aviation, defense and speed-camera technology. Now, a team at KAUST, in collaboration with scientists at the VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, have created a compact, low-cost radar with potential applications in healthcare and personal security. Radar provides detailed information about the size, distance and speed of moving objects. However, for close-range applications, the transmitted radio waves must have short wavelengths to pick up as much detail as possible about its immediate environment. Such sensors could help visually impaired people, and unmanned moving devices, to see by translating radar reflections into useful information." [...]
"3D printing of chalcogenide glass could enable low-cost manufacturing of complex optical components for telecom and sensing applications. For the first time, researchers have successfully 3D printed chalcogenide glass, a unique material used to make optical components that operate at mid-infrared wavelengths. The ability to 3D print this glass could make it possible to manufacture complex glass components and optical fibers for new types of low-cost sensors, telecommunications components and biomedical devices. In The Optical Society (OSA) journal Optical Materials Express, researchers from the Centre d’Optique, Photonique et Laser (COPL) at Université Laval in Canada, Patrick Larochelle and his colleagues, describe how they modified a commercially available 3D printer for glass extrusion. The new method is based on the commonly used technique of fused deposition modeling, in which a plastic filament is melted and then extruded layer-by-layer to create detailed 3D objects. “3D printing of optical materials will pave the way for a new era of designing and combining materials to produce the photonic components and fibers of the future,” said Yannick Ledemi, a member of the research team." [...]
"Researchers at the University of California San Diego have improved their recycling process that regenerates degraded cathodes from spent lithium-ion batteries. The new process is safer and uses less energy than their previous method in restoring cathodes to their original capacity and cycle performance. Zheng Chen, a professor of nanoengineering who is affiliated with the Sustainable Power and Energy Center at UC San Diego, led the project. The work was published in Advanced Energy Materials. “Due to the rapid growth of electric vehicle markets, the worldwide manufacturing capacity of lithium-ion batteries is expected to reach hundreds of gigawatt hours per year in the next five years,” Chen said. “This work presents a solution to reclaim the values of end-of-life lithium-ion batteries after 5 to 10 years of operation.” Chen’s team previously developed a direct recycling approach to recycle and regenerate degraded cathodes." [...]
"A metasurface whose optical properties change in response to electricity provides precise control over the reflection and transmission of radiation The ability to manipulate light on a subwavelength-scale could lead to a revolution in photonic devices such as antennas, solar panels, and even cloaking devices. Nanotechnology advances have made this possible through the development of metasurfaces, materials covered in features smaller than the wavelength of the light. Now, a team led by ASTAR researchers has produced a highly promising metasurface that can be precisely controlled using a conventional electrical circuit so that it reflects and transmits different amounts of radiation. It can even reach the condition of ‘perfect antireflection’ where it reflects no radiation at all. Specifically, the surface works with broadband terahertz radiation, which is found at the far end of the infrared spectrum and has many potential uses, particularly in security or medical fields. “Terahertz radiation can penetrate a wide variety of non-conducting materials, but is blocked by liquid water or metals,” explains Lu Ding, who led the work with Jinghua Teng at the ASTAR Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE)." [...]
Com a disponibilidade de ferramentas que permitem dar azo a nossa imaginação na criação de peças 3D e espaços como o thingiverse para as publicar, esta rubrica apresenta alguns modelos selecionados que poderão ser úteis.
"A parametric cylinder sinusoidally dented along the Z axis. Can be used as: Star exclamation style shape Gears: helical or straigth. Very smooth run as long as relatively same nr of teeth But intolerant to dirts as the teeth nearly fully engage Planetary gears: helical or straigth. Threaded shaft + corresponding tube Decorative object ... Optionally: Dented surface on the inside Left/Right constant angle twist added Round surface down to a polygon for torque transmission" [...]
A documentação é parte essencial do processo de aprendizagem e a Internet além de artigos interessantes de explorar também tem alguma documentação em formato PDF interessante de ler. Todos os links aqui apresentados são para conteúdo disponibilizado livremente pelo editor do livro.
"Even if you are an absolute beginner, this book will teach you all you need to know to write simple programs in C and start creating GUIs. The first half of the book is an introduction to C, and covers the basics of writing simple command-line programs. The second half shows how to use the GTK user interface toolkit with C to create feature-rich GUI applications which can be run on the desktop. 156 pages of essential information: Create simple command-line C programs Control flow with conditions and loops Handle variables, strings, and files Design graphical user interface applications in C Handle user input with buttons and menus Use advanced UI features such as data stores and dialogs" [...]
"This issue we look beyond the confines of our small planet into the great cosmos beyond. We discover makers building their own satellites, the hackers providing ground support for space craft and find out how to keep an eye on the International Space Station. Repair Cafe Mechanical sculptures Wearable lights Team Pimoroni" [...]
Diversos Projetos interessantes.
"The TFT LCD Breakout 1.8in 128x160 is a versatile, colorful, and easy way to experiment with graphics or create a user interface for your project. In this guide we will familiarize ourselves with the hardware, explain how to connect the display to your microcontroller of choice, cover how to install the Arduino libraries, and give an overview of the software examples that you can start off with. Required Materials The TFT LCD Breakout has Plated-Through-Hole (PTH) connections. You can connect these in a number of different ways but we suggest soldering in breakaway headers for use with a breadboard. You'll also need an Arduino compatible microcontroller of your choice - we recommend something with extra RAM like the ESP32 Thing Plus or the RedBoard Turbo. You may not need everything on this wish list, depending on what you may already have." [...]
"A funny looking robot in the form of a plant, that interacts with some sensors inputs, talks, plays music and detects human movement. Rory is a funny looking robot in the form of a plant, which interacts with some inputs by sensors, plays music and detects any surrounding human movement. In addition, it can snap photos when you order it to. " [...]
"My car was 3D printed, if you like my design (i doubt :P) you can download it from here or thingiverse. This car can drive by itself avoiding obstacles or be controlled by your smartphone with android. I made special app for it. You can dowload it here or from google play. " [...]
"Slouchy board is a small 30mm x 30mm PCB (Printed Circuit Board) that uses a tilt sensor, a piezo buzzer and an ATTiny 85 to make an annoying sound when the user is slouching. The board could be attached to a users shirt or hat so that when they lean forward, the metal ball in the tilt switch rolls forward and completes the circuit. The tilt switch that we used is very noisy and can cause some coding challenges but can be made to work. A mercury switch would have been better though. The following individual components were used for breadboarding, all of them and more can be purchased in this kit (https://amzn.to/2D8TKAm) or you could get them separately. Arduino Uno Jumper Wires Resistors (1k and 10k) Piezo Buzzer Tilt Switch SWITCH ALTERNATIVE: Mercury switch (https://amzn.to/2IlnK0n) You can try to use this but I am not sure how it works as I haven't used one." [...]
"In this DIY guide I will show you how to make your own security check system based on Arduino! You can use this system in areas with security guards (e.g. warehouses, malls, open areas). Every guard will have a personal RFID card with a unique ID number. When a security guard pass his cards over the Check point station - the ID and the current time/date will be stored inside controller memory (EEPROM). The security guard inside the "Control Room" can read the report of all check point stations with only one click!" [...]
"A tutorial of building a web clock with only an ESP8266/ESP-12 board and an SSD1306 OLED display by using built-in modules of MicroPython. This tutorial project is to create a very simple web clock on ESP8266/ESP-12 boards, by using only built-in modules (libraries) of MicroPython. In short, the project does the following things: Connect to a WiFi router; HTTP GET and parse web JSON data every minute, then update the internal RTC (real time clock) module; (this is to avoid DDoS-like query to the server. However since the software RTCs are incredibly inaccurate, we still have to update it within a minute or an hour, depends the board you are using.) Display internal RTC date and time on SSD1306 OLED display. If the board lose WiFi connection it would reboot itself." [...]
ESP32 NTP Temperature Probe Cooking Thermometer With Steinhart-Hart Correction and Temperature Alarm.
"Still on the journey to complete an "upcoming project", "ESP32 NTP Temperature Probe Cooking Thermometer With Steinhart-Hart Correction and Temperature Alarm" is an Instructable showing how I add an NTP temperature probe, piezo buzzer and software to my capacitive touch Instructable "ESP32 Capacitive Touch Input Using "Metallic Hole Plugs" for Buttons" to create a simple but accurate cooking thermometer with a programmable temperature alarm. The three capacitive touch buttons allow the temperature alarm level to be set. Pressing the center button displays the "Set Alarm Temperature" display, enabling the left and right buttons to reduce or increase the alarm temperature respectively. Pressing and releasing the left button will reduce the alarm temperature one degree, while pressing and holding the left button will continuously reduce the alarm temperature until released. Similarly, pressing and releasing the right button will increase the alarm temperature one degree, while pressing and holding the right button will continuously increase the alarm temperature until released. When finished adjusting the alarm temperature, simply touch the center button again to return to the temperature display." [...]
"In this Instructables I will show how to build a clone the classic game Tetris, using an ESP32 and generating the output for a VGA monitor. This game is made possible by the amazing ESP32Lib Arduino library done by bitluni. You will need the ESP32 board support installed in the Arduino IDE (I am using the last version available now, i.e. the 1.8.9 IDE). You can find it in the Library Manager searching for bitluni. Since the last version has been published just a couple of weeks ago, it is still work in progress but it already provides some simple examples." [...]
"Hello everyone, I'm Burak Gungor. Firstly, this project controling arduino car with glove. The glove has one MPU6050 6 axis gyro sensor. This sensor control move of hand. In this way the car moving forward, right, left sides and stoping. The communication provide by RF24 wireless module." [...]
"As the discussion with the new The C64 Mini regarding the joystick delay got bigger and bigger, I wanted to know more about it. On YouTube you could watch some delay tests, which were made with the help of video recordings. What I wanted, however, was automatic electronics that showed me the time in milliseconds. For video and audio separately. That's the reason for this Project. An universal Delay Test with an Arduino Leonardo board, an OLED Display and 2 Buttons." [...]
"Showcasing our spot welder, which is controlled by an Arduino Nano. In this project, my father and I are taking a shot to improve our own spot welder, which we started around two years ago. It might not be a hot topic on this website, but we had fun making it and learned a lot our of it. We hope you do as well. What I am covering in this project I will only cover the Arduino part of the welder, which is simple and does its job quite well, as well as give some basic specs of the welder itself. There are many turorials on YouTube and electronics forums that cover the making process of a welder and that's how we learned as well." [...]
"Shopping for family is a struggle for me around Christmas. I’m not the best at presents to begin with let alone finding something interesting they don’t already have. So, this year I decided to make my presents. This won’t be my first time doing this however last year didn’t really go as planned…. But that’s a story for another time. Before I delve into the ins and outs of the project, a tiny bit of background on me." [...]
"Access Control system using a cheap MFRC522, PN532 RFID, RDM6300 readers or Wiegand RFID readers and Espressif's ESP8266 Microcontroller. For Users - Minimal effort for setting up your Access Control system, just flash and everything can be configured via Web UI - Capable of managing up to 1.000 Users (even more is possible) - Great for Maker Spaces, Labs, Schools, etc - Cheap to build and easy to maintain For Tinkerers - Open Source (minimum amount of hardcoded variable, this means more freedom) - Using WebSocket protocol to exchange data between Hardware and Web Browser - Data is encoded as JSON object - Records are Timestamped (Time synced from a NTP Server) - MQTT enabled - Bootstrap, jQuery, FooTables for beautiful Web Pages for both Mobile and Desktop Screens - Thanks to ESPAsyncWebServer Library communication is Asynchronous Official Hardware - Small size form factor, sometimes it is possible to glue it into existing readers. - Single power source to power 12V/2A powers ESP12 module, RFID Wiegand Reader and magnetic lock for opening doors. - Exposed programming pins for ESP8266 - Regarding hardware design, you get multiple possible setup options: - Forward Bell ringing on reader to MCU or pass it out of board - Track Door Status - Control reader’s status LED - Control reader’s status BUZZER sound * - Power reader, lock and the board through single 12V, 2A PSU - Optionally power magnetic lock through external AC/DC PSU - Possible to use any kind and any type of Wiegand readers - Enables you to make IOT Access System with very little wiring - Fits in an universal enclosures with DIN mount - Open Source Hardware" [...]
"This project aims to solve a real problem of air quality analysis, applicable both in internal and external environments. The primary purpose of a systematic air quality monitoring network is to distinguish between areas where pollutant levels violate an ambient air quality standard and areas where they do not. As health-based ambient air quality standards are set at levels of pollutant concentrations that result in adverse impacts on human health, evidence of levels exceeding an ambient air quality standard in an area requires a public air quality agency to mitigate the corresponding pollutant. In other words, strategies, technologies, and regulations need to be developed to achieve the necessary reduction in pollution. The secondary purpose of a systematic monitoring network is to document the success of this sophisticated endeavor, either to record the rate of progress towards attaining the ambient air quality standard or to show that the standard has been achieved. We propose a simple and economic solution." [...]
"For our SIDE project, a year long project that we do for Ms. Berbawy's Principles of Engineering class, we decided to make a stroboscopic fountain. The stroboscopic effect, pioneered by Harold Edgerton, makes objects appear as though they are moving in slow motion. How does this work? A strobe light is flashed at the same rate and time as an object is moving. Every time the strobe light flashes, it illuminates the object in the object in the position that it is in. In the case of the fountain, the strobe light flashes every time the water droplets are in the same position relative to the lights, so it looks as though the water droplets aren’t moving when they are actually getting replaced by the water droplet after it each time the strobe light flashes, you just can’t see it." [...]
"This instruction is a story about how I made an ornithopter prototype. For those who do not know, an ornithopter is a machine designed to achieve flight by flapping wings like a real bird. The idea was to create an ornithopter from scratch, to control it remotely, and of course to make it fly. Please do not judge; I'm not the professional of the aircraft industry. So, not everything works as I would like, but it still does. Instead of photos, this instruction prevails by graphic schemes." [...]
"Detect your I2C device's slave address using an LCD and a barebones MSP430 (M430G2553). Overview Things Story The Steps Trying it out Custom parts and enclosures Schematics Code Credits Comments(4) 2 HyperChiicken HyperChiicken Published April 14, 2019 © MIT I2C Scanner Detect your I2C device's slave address using an LCD and a barebones MSP430 (M430G2553). Easy Full instructions provided 1.5 hours 206 I2C Scanner Things used in this project Hardware components MSP-EXP430G2 MSP430 LaunchPad Texas Instruments MSP-EXP430G2 MSP430 LaunchPad × 1 Alphanumeric LCD, 20 x 4 Alphanumeric LCD, 20 x 4 × 1 Software apps and online services Energia Texas Instruments Energia Story I had some parts lying around, and I wanted to give them some purpose. So I went ahead and pimped my breadboard with an i2c scanner. The scanner basically looks for the device's slave address then displays it on the LCD screen. This makes it easier to find the address without diving into the datasheet." [...]
"In this project I will be showing you how to create a crude but functional battery spot welder. Its mains power source is a car battery and all of its components combined cost around 90 which makes this setup pretty low cost. So sit back and learn how to build your own with an Arduino and a few complementary components. Let's get started! " [...]
"In this instructable I will be showing you how to turn a standard Ikea Grono lamp into a Wifi-Controlled LED Lamp! The lamp has over 10 different light show modes including a sound reactive mode. If you have ever been to a goodwill or a local second hand store, you have likely seen an Ikea Grono lamp. For whatever reason, all of the goodwills near me had a ton of these lamps so I decided to see what I could do to make them better. After making these changes, I will definitely not be donating or throwing it away! I have recently been playing around with NodeMCU Esp8266 microcontrollers which have WiFi capability." [...]
"DIY gifts are the perfect way to show someone how much you love them and how much special they are for you. And today, we have the perfect thing for you: the DIY camshaft home decor with animated text display. Why? First off, it's DIY from start till end, it's fun to make, it's animated, and you can personalize the text; maybe even pop the question! For making it, you'll be needing evive, some 3D printed parts, a message you want to give, a Smartphone with Dabble installed in it, and a lot of DIYing. You can download Dabble from Google Play." [...]
"Hello! Today you can hardly surprise anyone with a mobile phone with a camera, wireless gadgets and other technical advances. Thanks to the Arduino platform, millions of people have discovered the wonderful world of electronics and programming. 100,500 instructions were written on how to exchange data between a mobile phone and Arduino via bluetooth ... What am I talking about? Yes. I want to exchange data between a mobile phone on Android and Arduino UNO through bluetooth in 100,501 times." [...]
"this circuit works with both AC AND current. Once the circuit gets an IR signal from the remote, the relay will turn ON and if u again give that same signal, it will turn off. " [...]
"The Time Manipulator is a programmable Arduino based Delay/Echo/Reverb guitar pedal. It uses two PT2399 delay integrated circuits to archive up to 600ms delay. Also, with the help of 4 analog switches, the internal configuration of the pedal can change: placing the PT2399 delay chips in series or parallel and adding extra features: The code for the Arduino chip is programmed in C and it is Open-Source, so users can re-program the functionality or add new effects and share them in the forum. There are 9 effects included by default in the pedal: short delay, delay, echo, reverb, tap echo, chorus, telegraph, accelerator, and psycho. The schematic and bill of materials are public, the circuit was designed using easy-to-find and through-hole components. " [...]
"Losing things is a part of life. Accio makes sure you always get back what you lose, via voice. "Accio" happened, basically because it was essential for the smooth functioning of my daily routines. Every morning, while getting ready for work, locating my bike keys and wallet would be a struggle. Yes, everything could have been solved if I could just decide to keep my keys at the same place all the time, but where's the fun in that.. Hence I began looking for technologies I could use to solve my problem." [...]
"15 A 100V Isolated Half bridge driver project intended to be used for DC-DC converters, inverters, LED driver and motor driver applications. This projects is really helpful in industrial applications where noise is a concern since project provides optical isolation between microcontroller and high current output. ADuM4224 isolated precision Half-Bridge driver is the heart of the project. IRFR120 dual Mosfet is used as output driver. MOSFET can be replaced as per application requirement of voltage and current rating. The ADuM4224 isolators each provide two independent isolated channels." [...]
"Why build a clock that displays four letter words? The current time is everywhere; on your PC, smartphone, GPS, MP3 player, etc. Heck, you may even own a watch! Four letter words are pretty common as well. So why then? 1st) I had this display that I bought from DealExtreme.Com." [...]
"Hey Its Soumojit Back again with a cool project. Its a ultimate paper piano with just arduino. Can be a good weekend project or can be a great thing in a science exhibition too. So the whole things work on concept of capacitive touch, you can read more about it here https://playground.arduino.cc/Main/CapacitiveSensor/. I also dont have too much knowledge about piano but I did a little research in internet and learn some stuff about piano and notes. So, in this piano their is 2 octaves and another c note, total 15 keys." [...]
"This Instructable describes how we can use the Node MCU board to collect data from multiple sensors, send this data to a hosted PHP file which then adds the data to a MySQL database. The data can then be viewed online as a graph, using chart.js. A basic knowledge of PHP and MySQL will be required for this project and you will need access to web hosting with these set up to be able to create and view your own graphs. I'm also assuming you have basic knowledge of using the Node MCU board and uploading sketches to it. (I use the Arduino IDE for this) As the Node MCU has only one analogue pin we will use multiplexing to be able to read data from multiple sensors. (A number of instructables cover this concept in more detail so I won't go into that here)." [...]
"VGA Controller, PS/2 Mouse and Keyboard Controller, Graphics Library, Game Engine and ANSI/VT Terminal for the ESP32 Please look here for full API documentation If you would like to support FabGL's development, please see the Donations page. This library works well with ESP32 revision 1 or upper. VGA output requires a digital to analog converter (DAC): it can be done by three 270 Ohm resistors to have 8 colors, or by 6 resistors to have 64 colors. Three fonts are embedded to best represents 80x25 or 132x25 text screen, at 640x350 resolution. However other fonts and resolutions can be used. Sprites can have up to 64 colors (RGB, 2 bits per channel + transparency)." [...]
"When learning a new musical instrument as a kid, there are so many new things to keep focus on. Keeping pace in the right tempo is one of them. Not finding a functionally complete and convenient metronome meant the best excuse to start building again with my kids. In this Instructables post you'll find the functional description, parts list with webshop links and prices, wiring diagram for assembly, and complete Arduino source code. It would be nice to have a metronome device with the following functions to use it at home or at the music school conveniently. Compact form factor to fit small places on top or next to musical instruments, Battery operated, robust and portable to carry around, Easily set up even for kids, BPM value always displayed, Adjustable beats per minute with a Rotary knob, up to 240 BPM Audible tact with volume control, Silent mode for overnight headphone practice, Visual feedback of beats (1/4, 2/4, 3/3, 4/4, 6/8, etc.)" [...]
"Wireless communication has become a key feature in our projects nowadays and talking about wireless, the first thing that comes to my mind is Wi-Fi or BT, but handling the Wi-Fi or BT communication protocols is not an easy task and consumes a lot of MCU resources, leaving small space for coding my application. Therefore, I usually opt for an external Wi-Fi/BT module serially connected to the microcontroller in order to split the roles and gain higher freedom. However, sometimes Wi-Fi and BT are overkill for some applications requiring low bitrate and short communication distance. Furthermore, using Wi-Fi or BT implies the necessity of connecting your Smartphone or device with proper authentication. Imagine that you simply need to turn on/off an external light, or change the lamp light intensity, or open an electric gate. Would it be worth to use Wi-Fi or BT?" [...]
"Hey guys, In this instructables I want to show you how to build your own automated mixed-drink maker to satisfy all your liquid (and alcohol ;) )needs. For a while now, I have been satisfying my thirst and taste-buds with pre-made concentrates from sodastream. The unit allows you to easily carbonate water and add flavoring to it. However, where it exceeds in easy of use, it lacks in quality. After nearly 4 months of research and planning, I can finally say that i have built my own solution that goes above and beyond anything currently on the market. Having gone through all the steps, this project is great for those who want to build a full-tier product, involving both software and hardware." [...]
"The 6502 has been around for just about 40 years, yet still powers the hearts of many electrical systems in place today, such as many microcontrollers and embedded systems. In fact, WDC still manufactures the 6502 and 65xx series chips under the 65c02 and 65cxx. I've noticed that WDC also introduced more package variants of the 6502 and 6522, such as PLCC and QFP. Another thing I noticed was the fact that these form factors of the 65c02 are almost never used. Given that the only people buying these are hobbyists, that isn't too suprizing, as they dont offer much over the standard 40 pin DIP.What they do offer, however, is small package size. I went off to try and design the smallest 6502 SBC i could, and was pleasantly suprized with the results." [...]
"One day, in our Principles of Engineering class, we set out to construct compound machines out of VEX parts. As we began to build the mechanisms, we struggled to manage multiple complex components that needed to be assembled together. If only someone could give us a hand... That's why we, three Irvington High School students in Ms.Berbawy's class, decided to design and build a robotic hand from scratch! With a financial estimate of $150 for this S.I.D.E. Project, we were able to acquire all the materials needed while remaining well under the budget. The finished product consists of an Arduino Mega, a servo micro-controller that drives 5 servos, each of which is connected to a 3D printed finger that is able to move individually with realistic joints." [...]
"This project Instructable is a build of a multi function Timer. This timer is capable of functioning as: A general purpose alarm with selectable times between 1 second and +90 hours. Having a count down with audible alarm and/or control of external device till finished then a count-up indication of time since alarm. A nap timer with 7 selectable times, count-down and alarm on completion. A meditation timer with 4 selectable times, with count-down and a short chirp on completion, count-up with another chirp at 5 minutes after that . This project may ether be built as described here or modified to suit." [...]
That's all Folks!