2019-01-17 - Nº 194
Esta é a Newsletter Nº 194 que se apresenta com o mesmo formato que as anteriores. Se gostar da Newsletter partilhe-a!
Todas as Newsletters encontram-se indexadas no link.
Esta Newsletter tem os seguintes tópicos:
Faz anos hoje que nascia, em 1706, Benjamin Franklin. Este estadista norte-americano, cientista, inventor, diplomata, autor, impressor e editor, tornou-se amplamente conhecido nos círculos científicos europeus pelos seus relatos de experiências e teorias eléctricas. Ele inventou um tipo de fogão, que ainda é fabricado, para dar mais calor do que lareiras, assim como o pára-raios. Ele usou óculos bi-focais que também foram suas ideias. Agarrando o fato de que pelo esforço conjunto uma comunidade pode ter amenidades que apenas os poucos ricos podem obter para si, ele ajudou a estabelecer instituições que as pessoas agora tomam como garantidas: uma empresa de bombeiros (1736), uma biblioteca (1731), uma companhia de seguros (1752). ), uma academia (1751) e um hospital (1751). Em alguns casos, essas fundações foram as primeiras desse tipo na América do Norte.
Faz também anos hoje que nascia, em 1781, Robert Hare. Este Químico norte-americano inventou o primeiro maçarico de oxi-hidrogénio com o objectivo de produzir grande calor. Ele foi capaz de derreter quantidades consideráveis de platina com este maçarico. Mais tarde, descobriu-se que quando uma chama de maçarico agia num bloco de óxido de cálcio, uma luz branca brilhante resultava - o centro das atenções. O seu dispositivo também foi o pai dos modernos maçaricos de soldadura. Ele apresentou um artigo descrevendo a sua invenção em 10 de Dezembro de 1801 para a Chemical Society of Philadelphia.
Por fim, faz anos hoje que nascia, em 1889, Ralph H. Fowler. Este físico e astrónomo inglês cuja formação universitária em matemática o levou a trabalhar em termodinâmica e mecânica estatística, com importantes aplicações em físico-química. No campo da astronomia, ele colaborou com Arthur Milne nos espectros de estrelas e suas temperaturas e pressões. Ele também trabalhou na mecânica estatística de estrelas anãs brancas (1926) com P.A.M. Dirac, a quem ele tinha apresentado a teoria quântica. Fowler propôs que as estrelas anãs brancas consistem num gás degenerado de densidade extremamente alta.
Nesta semana que passou ficámos a saber que a China, através da sua sonda Chang'e 4 está a fazer experiências com sementes de algodão. Tendo tido algum sucesso inicial com a germinação das mesmas quando veio a noite lunar o frio matou as plantas. Estes pioneiros da fotossíntese fazem parte da experiência biológica da Chang'e 4, que também incluiu sementes de plantas de batata, entre outras, bem como ovos de mosca-das-frutas e leveduras. Estes organismos foram enviados num contentor de 2,6 kg, que aterrou com a Chang'e 4 na noite de 2 de Janeiro.
Também esta semana ficámos a saber que o CERN tem planos para construir um novo acelerador de partículas, designado por FCC - Future Circular Collider. Nos próximos dois anos, a comunidade da física de partículas estará a actualizar a Estratégia Europeia para a Física de Partículas, delineando o futuro da disciplina além do horizonte do LHC - Large Hadron Collider . O roteiro para o futuro deve, em particular, levar a escolhas cruciais para a pesquisa e desenvolvimento nos próximos anos, em última análise, com vista a construir o acelerador de partículas que sucederá o LHC e será capaz de ampliar significativamente o nosso conhecimento da matéria e do universo. O novo CDR contribui para a Estratégia Europeia. A possibilidade de um futuro colisor circular será examinada durante o processo de estratégia, juntamente com a outra opção de colisor pós-LHC no CERN, o colisor linear CLIC. “O objetivo final da FCC é fornecer um anel acelerador de protões supercondutor de 100 quilómetros, com uma energia de até 100 TeV, significando uma ordem de grandeza mais poderosa que o LHC”, disse o Director de Aceleradores e Tecnologia do CERN, Frédérick Bordry. “O cronograma da FCC prevê começar com uma máquina de electrões-positrões, assim como o LEP precedeu o LHC. Isso permitirá que um programa abundante beneficiasse a comunidade da física de partículas durante o século XXI ”.
Na Newsletter desta semana apresentamos diversos projetos de maker.
João Alves ([email protected])
O conteúdo da Newsletter encontra-se sob a licença Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Novidades da Semana
"The moon is a lifeless world once again. The cotton plants that sprouted on the moon's far side aboard China's Chang'e 4 lander are dead, done in by the bitter cold of the lengthy lunar night, GBTimes reported today (Jan. 16). These photosynthesizing pioneers were part of Chang'e 4's biological experiment, which also included seeds of potato, rapeseed and Arabidopsis plants, as well as fruit-fly eggs and yeast. These organisms were encased in a 5.7-lb. (2.6 kilograms) canister, which touched town on the lunar far side with the Chang'e 4 lander-rover duo on the night of Jan. 2. [Photos from the Moon's Far Side!" [...]
International collaboration publishes concept design for a post-LHC future circular collider at CERN
"Geneva. Today, the Future Circular Collider (FCC) collaboration submitted its Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for publication, a four-volume document that presents the different options for a large circular collider of the future. It showcases the great physics opportunities offered by machines of unprecedented energy and intensity and describes the technical challenges, cost and schedule for realisation. Over the next two years, the particle physics community will be updating the European Strategy for Particle Physics, outlining the future of the discipline beyond the horizon of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The roadmap for the future should, in particular, lead to crucial choices for research and development in the coming years, ultimately with a view to building the particle accelerator that will succeed the LHC and will be able to significantly expand our knowledge of matter and the universe. The new CDR contributes to the European Strategy." [...]
"A periodic table chart discovered at the University of St Andrews is thought to be the oldest in the world. The chart of elements, dating from 1885, was discovered in the University’s School of Chemistry in 2014 by Dr Alan Aitken during a clear out. The storage area was full of chemicals, equipment and laboratory paraphernalia that had accumulated since the opening of the chemistry department at its current location in 1968. Following months of clearing and sorting the various materials a stash of rolled up teaching charts was discovered. Within the collection was a large, extremely fragile periodic table that flaked upon handling. Suggestions that the discovery may be the earliest surviving example of a classroom periodic table in the world meant the document required urgent attention to be authenticated, repaired and restored." [...]
"A brief and unusual flash spotted in the night sky on June 16, 2018, puzzled astronomers and astrophysicists across the globe. The event - called AT2018cow and nicknamed "the Cow" after the coincidental final letters in its official name - is unlike any celestial outburst ever seen before, prompting multiple theories about its source. Over three days, the Cow produced a sudden explosion of light at least 10 times brighter than a typical supernova, and then it faded over the next few months. This unusual event occurred inside or near a star-forming galaxy known as CGCG 137-068, located about 200 million light-years away in the constellation Hercules. The Cow was first observed by the NASA-funded Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System telescope in Hawaii. So exactly what is the Cow?" [...]
STMicroelectronics STM8L050 Extends Choice and Freedom in 8-bit Microcontrollers, with Rich Analog and DMA in Low-Cost 8-pin Package
"STMicroelectronics is boosting feature integration in low-cost, low-power 8-bit microcontrollers (MCUs) with the new STM8L050. As the latest in the ultra-energy-conscious STM8L series, it embeds rich analog peripherals, a DMA controller, and separated data EEPROM, all in an inexpensive SO-8 package with up to six user I/Os. STMicroelectronics’ STM8L050 Extends Choice and Freedom in 8-bit Microcontrollers, with Rich Analog and DMA in Low-Cost 8-pin Package Leveraging ST’s powerful, efficient STM8 core running at up to 16 MHz, the STM8L050 delivers economy and performance for resource-constrained products like industrial sensors, toys, access cards, e-bike controllers, home-automation or lighting products, smart printer cartridges, or battery chargers. The integrated DMA (Direct Memory Access) controller speeds application performance by streamlining data transfers between peripherals and memory, or from memory to memory, ultimately saving power consumption. The 256 bytes of separated EEPROM allows applications to store important program data when the MCU is powered down, while allowing maximum utilization of Flash for code storage. Alongside two comparators, the STM8L050 has a 4-channel 12-bit analog-digital converter (ADC) and a low-power real-time clock (RTC) with programmable alarm and periodic wakeups, allowing designers to minimize external analog components." [...]
"Nearly 19 million acres of forests are destroyed annually, equal to 27 football pitches a minute. Forests serve as homes for thousands of animals, and for many people they’re a source of food, water, clothing, medicine and shelter. The so-called lungs of the Earth also mitigate climate change by acting as a carbon sink. And as cities expand and competition for space increases, managing vital green spaces is becoming increasingly important. To deepen our understanding of these complex ecosystems, 20tree.ai, a Portugal-based startup and member of the NVIDIA Inception program, is combining AI and satellite imagery. Their work allows for the monitoring of entire forests in a fraction of the time currently required." [...]
"While diving into the Atlantic Ocean off the shores of North Carolina with his friends in 2010, Ian Burkhart, then a college student, sustained a devastating spinal cord injury that left him paralyzed from the chest down. But with a brain-computer interface powered by neural networks, he can now use his right hand to pick up objects, pour liquids and play Guitar Hero. Burkhart is the first participant in a clinical trial led by Ohio State University and Battelle, a nearby independent research and development organization. A Blackrock Microsystems microchip implanted in Burkhart’s brain connects to a computer running algorithms developed at Battelle. The algorithms interpret his neural activity and send signals to an electrode sleeve on his right hand. The sleeve, also invented at Battelle, stimulates the nerves and muscles in his arm to elicit a specific hand movement." [...]
"Wiliot, the semiconductor pioneer and innovator, raises a $30 million series B for a total of $50 million in funding. This follows its demonstration of the first-ever sticker-sized Bluetooth sensor tag incorporating an ARM processor powered solely by scavenging energy from ambient radio frequencies. Wiliot made the announcement today at the National Retail Federation (NRF) 2019: Retail’s Big Show in New York City. Watch Demo A Wiliot chip glued to a simple antenna printed on plastic or paper can authenticate the proximity of a product by transmitting an encrypted serial number along with weight and temperature data from a device the size of a postage stamp. Eliminating most of the components associated with traditional Bluetooth, these tags lower sale and maintenance costs to previously unachievable levels. The tags use Wiliot’s breakthrough in nanowatt computing to communicate with any device enabled by Bluetooth Low Energy, such as smartphones, Wi-Fi access points and Internet of Things (IoT) devices that can connect to digital displays, Wi-Fi and LTE cellular networks." [...]
"Over 1,400 years ago, Chinese people built the first known stone arch bridge in an epoch we do not readily think of as technological. Now, in an age when the prominence of technology cannot be denied, the glory of those bygone civil engineers has been recreated through 3D printing technology. Two 3D-printed bridges — the world’s largest 3D-printed concrete pedestrian bridge in Baoshan District and a resin bridge in Putuo District — have brought technology more widely used in education, medicine and the automobile industry into architecture and construction. The technique is much faster and cleaner than the alternatives. The bridges are both more durable and cheaper than conventional construction techniques, according to Xu Weiguo, an architecture professor with Tsinghua University, who built the Baoshan bridge. The 26.3-meter bridge across a canal in Wisdom Bay Innovation Park on the Wenzaobang River was completed on Saturday." [...]
Ciência e Tecnologia
"The smallest building blocks within the power stations of organisms which get their energy directly from the sun are basically miniature reactors surrounded by collectors which capture photons and forward them to the centre. The close correlation between structure and interaction of the components boosts productivity, a strategy which an international team of researchers is using for increasing the efficiency of solar technology. At FAU, research is being carried out in this area by the Chair of Physical Chemistry I, and the latest results have been published in the prestigious journal Nature Chemistry (https://doi.org/10.1038/s41557-018-0172-y). Green plants, algae and some bacteria use sunlight to convert energy. The pigments in chlorophyll absorb electromagnetic radiation which induces chemical reactions in electrons. These reactions take place in the nucleus of complex protein structures, referred to by experts as photosystems I and II." [...]
"Theoretical analysis distinguishes observed “holes” from the huge list of hypothetically possible ones. Amid the frenzy of worldwide research on atomically thin materials like graphene, there is one area that has eluded any systematic analysis — even though this information could be crucial to a host of potential applications, including desalination, DNA sequencing, and devices for quantum communications and computation systems. That missing information has to do with the kinds of minuscule defects, or “holes,” that form in these 2-D sheets when some atoms are missing from the material’s crystal lattice. Now that problem has been solved by researchers at MIT, who have produced a catalog of the exact sizes and shapes of holes that would most likely be observed (as opposed to the many more that are theoretically possible) when a given number of atoms is removed from the atomic lattice. The results are described in the journal Nature Materials in a paper by graduate student Ananth Govind Rajan, professors of chemical engineering Daniel Blankschtein and Michael Strano, and four others at MIT, Lockheed Martin Space, and Oxford University. “It’s been a longstanding problem in the graphene field, what we call the isomer cataloging problem for nanopores,” Strano says." [...]
"The human brain owes its characteristic wrinkled appearance to its outer layer, the cerebral cortex. During human evolution, the neocortex, the evolutionarily youngest part of the cerebral cortex, expanded dramatically and had to fold into wrinkles to fit inside the restricted space of the skull. The human neocortex supports advanced cognitive skills such as reasoning and language. But how did the human neocortex become so big? The answer may lie in genes that are unique to humans, such as ARHGAP11B. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics in Dresden found that this human-specific gene, when introduced into the developing brain of ferrets, can cause an enlargement of their neocortex." [...]
"New research could lead to the design of new materials to help improve the performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Perovskite solar cells are an emerging photovoltaic technology that has seen a remarkable rise in power conversion efﬁciency to above 20 per cent. However, PSC performance is affected as the perovskite material contains ion defects that can move around over the course of a working day. As these defects move, they affect the internal electric environment within the cell. The Perovskite material is responsible for absorbing light to create electronic charge, and also for helping to extract the charge into an external circuit before it is lost to a process called ‘recombination’. The majority of detrimental recombination can occur in different locations within the solar cell." [...]
"By 2050, batteries based on lithium-ion will be the cheapest way to store electricity, such as from solar or wind farms, according to a new study. The new research calculates the cost of storing energy with different technologies, including large-scale batteries and pumped-storage hydroelectricity, and predicts those costs into the future. Based on this model, battery technologies based on lithium-ion are predicted to be the cheapest way of storing energy for most applications, such as making sure energy grids do not suffer large fluctuations and allowing consumers to manage their bills. These applications are particularly important in a world that relies more heavily on energy sources that may be intermittent – such as wind or solar power. The new study, published today in Joule by researchers at Imperial College London, could help industry and policymakers decide where to invest research and capital to make the best use of energy storage technologies. While previous studies of energy storage costs primarily focused on the investment costs only, the new study determines the ‘levelized cost of storage’ – the full costs of storing energy including investment, operation and charging cost, as well as technology lifetime, efficiency and performance degradation." [...]
"Lithium-air batteries are poised to become the next revolutionary replacement for currently used lithium-ion batteries that power electric vehicles, cell phones and computers. Lithium-air batteries, which currently are still in the experimental stages of development, can store 10 times more energy than lithium-ion batteries, and they are much lighter. That said, lithium-air batteries could be even more efficient and provide more charge with the incorporation of advanced catalysts made from two-dimensional materials. Catalysts help increase the rate of chemical reactions inside batteries, and depending on the type of material from which the catalyst is made, they can help significantly boost the ability of the battery to hold and provide energy. “We are going to need very high-energy density batteries to power new advanced technologies that are incorporated into phones, laptops and especially electric vehicles,” said Amin Salehi-Khojin, associate professor of mechanical and industrial engineering in UIC’s College of Engineering. Salehi-Khojin and his colleagues synthesized several 2D materials that can serve as catalysts." [...]
"Rather than building up plastic filaments layer by layer, a new approach to 3D printing lifts complex shapes from a vat of liquid at up to 100 times faster than conventional 3D printing processes, University of Michigan researchers have shown. 3D printing could change the game for relatively small manufacturing jobs, producing fewer than 10,000 identical items, because it would mean that the objects could be made without the need for a mold costing upwards of $10,000. But the most familiar form of 3D printing, which is sort of like building 3D objects with a series of 1D lines, hasn’t been able to fill that gap on typical production timescales of a week or two. “Using conventional approaches, that’s not really attainable unless you have hundreds of machines,” said Timothy Scott, an associate professor of chemical engineering at U-M, who co-led the development of the new 3D printing approach with Mark Burns, the T.C. Chang Professor of Engineering at U-M. Their method solidifies the liquid resin using two lights to control where the resin harden—and where it stays fluid. This enables the team to solidify the resin in more sophisticated patterns." [...]
"Researchers from the University of Basel have reported a new method that allows the physical state of just a few atoms or molecules within a network to be controlled. It is based on the spontaneous self-organization of molecules into extensive networks with pores about one nanometer in size. In the journal small, the physicists reported on their investigations, which could be of particular importance for the development of new storage devices. Around the world, researchers are attempting to shrink data storage devices to achieve as large a storage capacity in as small a space as possible. In almost all forms of media, phase transition is used for storage. For the creation of CDs, for example, a very thin sheet of metal within the plastic is used that melts within microseconds and then solidifies again." [...]
"Graphene Flagship researchers produced graphene-based spintronics devices that utilise both electron charge and spin at room temperature. Demonstrating the spin’s feasibility for bridging distances of up to several micrometres, results open up new possibilities for integrating information-processing and storage in a single chip. From its very inception, the Graphene Flagship programme saw the potential of spintronics devices made from GRMs. Researchers from different universities successfully showed that it is possible to manipulate graphene’s spin properties in a controlled manner at room temperature. These results inspire new directions in the development of spin-logic devices and quantum computing. “With miniaturisation a major driving force behind the electronics industry, graphene opens new possibilities for compacting spin-logic operations with magnetic memory elements in a single platform,” notes Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA) Research Professor Stephan Roche, who has been leading the Graphene Flagships Spintronics Work Package since its inception." [...]
"Pollution is a serious issue in many parts of the world, especially in urban areas. Using novel graphene-based materials, researchers from the Graphene Flagship Functional Foams and Coatings Work Package have provided solutions to tackle environmental contamination, among other applications. Widespread enthusiasm about the applications of graphene in industry has been hampered by high-cost, scalability and quality bottlenecks. Various methodologies have been tested, which either leave defects in the resulting material or suffer from limited yield. Therefore, there is a pressing need to produce high-quality graphene at large scale with novel functionalities. The Functional Foams and Coatings Work Package, led by Prof. Xinliang Feng of the Technical University of Dresden in Germany, focuses on the chemical processing and functional applications of graphene and graphene-related materials (GRMs)." [...]
"For the first time, researchers used benzene - a common hydrocarbon - to create a novel kind of molecular nanotube, which could lead to new nanocarbon-based semiconductor applications. Researchers from the Department of Chemistry have been hard at work in their recently renovated lab in the University of Tokyo’s Graduate School of Science. The pristine environment and smart layout affords them ample opportunities for exciting experiments. Professor Hiroyuki Isobe and colleagues share an appreciation for “beautiful” molecular structures and created something that is not only beautiful but is also a first for chemistry. Their phenine nanotube (pNT) is beautiful to see for its pleasing symmetry and simplicity, which is a stark contrast to its complex means of coming into being. Chemical synthesis of nanotubes is notoriously difficult and challenging, even more so if you wish to delicately control the structures in question to provide unique properties and functions." [...]
"Researchers at The University of Manchester’s National Graphene Institute in the UK have succeeded in making artificial channels just one atom in size for the first time. The new capillaries, which are very much like natural protein channels such as aquaporins, are small enough to block the flow of smallest ions like Na+ and Cl- but allow water to flow through freely. As well as improving our fundamental understanding of molecular transport at the atomic scale, and especially in biological systems, the structures could be ideal in desalination and filtration technologies. “Obviously, it is impossible to make capillaries smaller than one atom in size,” explains team leader Sir Andre Geim. “Our feat seemed nigh on impossible, even in hindsight, and it was difficult to imagine such tiny capillaries just a couple of years ago.” Naturally occurring protein channels, such as aquaporins, allow water to quickly permeate through them but block hydrated ions larger than around 7 A in size thanks to mechanisms like steric (size) exclusion and electrostatic repulsion. Researchers have been trying to make artificial capillaries that work just like their natural counterparts, but despite much progress in creating nanoscale pores and nanotubes, all such structures to date have still been much bigger than biological channels." [...]
"Engineers from UTokyo and RIKEN perform computational logic with light. For the first time, researchers performed logic operations — the basis of computation — with a chemical device using electric fields and ultraviolet light. The device and the pioneering methods used open up research possibilities including low-power, high-performance computer chips. Computers need an upgrade. From smartwatches to data centers, all computers feature similar kinds of components, including processors and memory. These semiconductor chips comprise minuscule electronic transistors on beds of silicon." [...]
"Dead and alive at the same time? Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics have implemented Erwin Schrödinger’s paradoxical gedanken experiment employing an entangled atom-light state. In 1935 Erwin Schrödinger formulated a thought experiment designed to capture the paradoxical nature of quantum physics. The crucial element of this gedanken experiment is a cat that is simultaneously dead and alive. Since Schrödinger proposed his ‘cat paradox’, physicists have been thinking about ways to create such superposition states experimentally. A group of researchers led by Gerhard Rempe, Director of the Division of Quantum Dynamics at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, has now realized an optical version of Schrödinger’s thought experiment in the laboratory." [...]
Diversos Projetos interessantes.
"This is a Smart Motor Driver (aka SAMI) designed to run a micro gearmotor, the objective of this board is to implement a PID control over this motors with the corresponding RPM feedback. All required components are already on board, so it is capable of do the work by itself. Just supply power and send orders by I2C! The host controller communicates by I2C to give the commands to SAMI, this includes speed and direction of the motor. The module will automatically implement the PID control. So your host controller can just relax while this board takes care of the motor." [...]
"Summary of the steps: 1. Install the " Arduino Bluetooth RC Car" application using the link below: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=brau... 2. Download the Arduino .ino code and the schematic 3. follow the schematic to solder all the part together 4. compile the Arduino code to your Arduino board 5. 3D print a body for the car using the provided STL file (optional) 6. Attach the printed body to the frame of the car and your done. List of components: - 1 X Arduino pro mini or Arduino nano - 2 X 6V DC motors (left and right) - 1 X 24g servo (for steering) - 1 X L298 H-bridge module - 1 X Bluetooth Module (HC-06 or HC-05) - 2 X white LEDs - 2 X red LEDs - 2 X 1k Resistors - 2 X 220 Resistors - 2 X On/Off switch - 1 X 64x32 Oled display (0.49") - 4 X wheels - 1 X frame (prebuilt or custom) - 10 X 1m wire - 1 X perfboard (optional) - 1 battery (powerful enough to supply the motors) *Important Note: You need to know howto solder components together." [...]
"Hey guys! I Hope you already enjoyed my previous instructable "How to make your own Arduino training platform" and you are ready for a new one, as usual I made this tutorial to guide you step by step while making this kind of super amazing low cost electronic projects which is the "CNC plotter machine" known also as "CNC drawing" or just "Arduino CNC machine". ^^ I found lots of tutorial accross the web that explains how to make a CNC Plotter, but with the lack of information it was a bit difficult to make such machine, thats the reason why I've decided to start this instructable where I will show you in details how to easily make your own drawing machine. This project is so handy to make specially after getting the customized PCB that weve ordered from JLCPCB to improve the appearance of our machine and also there is enough documents and codes in this guide to allow you create your machine easily. We've made this project in just 5 days only, just three days to get all the needed parts and finish the hardware making and the assemble, then 2 days to prepare the code and start some adjustments. Before starting lets see first What you will learn from this instructable: Making the right hardware selection for your project depending on its functionalities Prepare the circuit diagram to connect all the choosen components Assemble all the project parts (mechanical and electronic assembly) Scaling of the machine balance Start manipulating the system"_ [...]
"With this project, you can remotely control your car with Bluetooth. I wanted to check a car but I have different ways to try it remotely. I wanted to do with bluetooth after the necessary tools for this and after the software was written. and this will be my second project in the hackster" [...]
"There are so called "USB Fairy Lights" or "USB String Lights" can be purchased from china for less than 3$ for a 10m/100Led set. These are 5V USB powered and weather-proof(except the USB connector part). I was curious to know more about these lights, and had a detailed look, this is what i found, and a closup of the LED. 5V powered 100LED circuit was consuming around ~1.8Watts(though 5.1Ohm series resistor was really hot) and the brightness of the LED's were not bad, especially difference between first led and last led brightness didnt bother me it was hardly noticeable when seen from distance. So I decided to use them as a christmas decoration for my garden. I wanted to use them with battery-bank as there was no power-outlet readily available(for the safety of my children, i would avoid any 230v circuit in my garden especially in wet weather)." [...]
"Do you get nightmares of losing your YouTube Subscribers? If you do, you are not the only one. Luckily I have made this "YouTube Desktop Notifier" to keep me up-to-date with my channels Subscriber and View Counts. This very simple DIY project cost me around $10 and it now keeps me in track with my channel. Other than displaying the Subscriber and View count this device also "Beeps and Glows" when my channel gains a new subscriber. " [...]
"I wanted to have a home weather station for quite some time and one that everyone in the family could easily check on for temperature and humidity. In addition to monitor the outside conditions I wanted to monitor specific rooms in the house as well and my garage workshop. That would let us know when it is a good time to air out the house or run the dehumidifier (it rains a lot here during the winter). What I created is an ESP-Now based sensor system that reports to a local web-server that anyone can check from their computer or phone. For the phone I wrote as simple Android app to make that even easier. " [...]
"There are different ways to control ESP8266 from Google Home, but most of the solutions you can find on Internet use IFTT, which is not really user-friendly to setup. gBridge.io allows to make the process easier and act seamlessly. In this how-to guide, Im gonna show you how I setup my ESP01 module to answer to commands such as Turn the lamp on and Is the lamp turned on?. The project only turn on and off the built-in LED, but it easy to go further after that. Materials needed: 1 * ESP8266 module (https://www.sparkfun.com/products/13678) 2 * push-buttons (https://www.sparkfun.com/products/97) 1 * 10k resistor 1 * FTDI cable 3.3V (https://www.sparkfun.com/products/14909)" [...]
"This is a self-contained computer with its own display and keyboard, based on an ATmega1284, that you can program in the high-level language Lisp: You can use it to run programs that interface to components such as LEDs and push-buttons via the I/O pins, read the analogue inputs, and operate external devices via the I2C and SPI interfaces. It has a greyscale OLED display that gives 8 lines of 42 characters, and an integrated 45-key keyboard optimised for Lisp. Introduction My earlier Tiny Lisp Computer 2 PCB was a board running Lisp that was just 3.25" x 1.5", but although it had an integrated display, it needed an external keyboard. I was inspired to make this new version when I saw Voja Antonic's Belgrade Badge, a self-contained BASIC computer with an integrated keyboard and display designed for the Hackaday Belgrade conference in July 2018 . The keyboard is based on tactile pushbuttons that are available for under 6 pence/cents each. I decided to keep the board as compact as possible by providing only the keys needed to program in uLisp, which meant departing from a standard keyboard layout." [...]
"Donkey Car featuring the Ultra96 board, a Raspberry Pi, FPGA accelerated stereo vision, MIPI CSI-2 image acquisition, a LiDAR sensor and AI. In this project, I will document the build of a Donkey Car enhanced with an advanced vision system using FPGA accelerated stereo vision and LiDAR. The project consists of the following main components: - Raspberry Pi 3 featuring 4 x Cortex-A53 cores - runs the AI that drives the car - Avnet / Xilinx Ultra96 Board - used for video acquisition and processing. The high speed MIPI CSI-2 input of two OV5647 cameras are captured using 2 video pipelines implemented in the programmable logic (FPGA) part of the Xilinx Zynq UltraScale+ MPSoC. The captured images are processed by an OpenCV / xfOpenCV application. Using a hardware accelerated stereo matching algorithm (xfOpenCV StereoBM) is applied on the input images and the depth of the scene is computed in real-time - Donkey Car - an RC car used for PoC - 2 x OV5647 5 MegaPixel NoIR Camera - TFMini LiDAR Sensor" [...]
"Today, we are going to introduce the Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT), a very useful method for IoT (Internet of Things). The main use of the MQTT is to provide communication between machines, that is, Machine-to-Machine (M2M). Let us therefore take the first steps with the Ubidots IoT platform, exposing its use in an example with ESP32 LoRa. This also comes with a DHT22 sensor, allowing for the sending of information made with the MQTT protocol. The MQTT protocol was created by IBM a long time ago and became widely used for IoT with cheap chips and easy access to the internet. In todays specific example, we will use Ubidots." [...]
"I could not find a good name for this project. You could also call it an enough sleep timer. The idea for this project came up during a vacation in winter. We were in a vacation home where there was no alarm clock in the bed room. I normally need 8 hours of sleep but not more than that so when I wake up and I have slept for 8 hours, it is time for me to get out of bed. Unfortunately if you have no alarm clock and it is still dark outside, you need to use your watch or your smart phone - but the latter is not something I keep in my bedroom to see if you have slept long enough." [...]
"Dont lie when we say that all of us at some point in time feel way too tired or lazy to get up and go from room to another just to open the door. Yall have been there. For sure. Some of you may also have been the victim of a sibling rivalry where one locks the other inside or outisde the room. But guess what! None of this happens anymore, mate!" [...]
"The project is to upgrade the motors and electronic in this Power Wheels kids quad bike.Underwhelmed with the performance of this 12V mini-quad. we planned to upgrade to a 24v system with 2 new traxxis 775 brushed motors after researching commercially available motor driver boards and finding that most were either kinda wimpy(see included comparison photo) or rather expensive i decided to design a simple Arduino based solutionDesign Brief 24v minimum bi-directional motor control PWM control scalable high current capable( 100AMP) minimal components 5v stepdown for logic battery voltage sense adruino nano controler access to inputs for specific uses (throttle [including top and bottom trim] , direction, enable, 1extra) access to unused pins for outputs (led out) the obvious solution is to use the mosfet based H-bridge circuit im going to show you how i designed and built my high current H-bridge driver" [...]
"Goal for this machine : Arduino based 3-Axis machine Cutting material : wood , plastic , aluminum Repeatibility < +/- 0.1 mm Cost < $500 Travel : X-Axis > 300 mm Y-Axis > 450 mm Z-Axis 50 mm This goal in mind, fixed gantry design was decided for improved rigidity and design simplicity. Frame : Aluminum parts laser cut from 6mm plate and V slot aluminum extrusion bolted together. Linear Guide : Induction hardened chromium plated linear guide rods and linear bearings LMK20UU for X and Y-Axis and LMK12UU for Z-Axis. Linear Drive : T8 OD 8 mm lead screws pitch 2mm lead 2mm with Pillow Block End Bearings and Anti Backlash Nut Blocks. Drive Motor and Controller : Nema 23 381 oz-in 3.5A KL23H2100-35-4B stepper motors for X and Y-Axis and Nema 23 57HS22 stepper motor for Z- Axis. TB6600 step motor drivers." [...]
"The home air conditioner is the first thing I want to connect to the Smart Home system because we can order the air conditioner before reaching the room. Come back and meet the cool air. Welcome. And if you use a traditional remote You must set the time to turn off the air conditioner every time you open Or whether waking up to the air in the morning But for this Smart Home system, you can set the time to automatically turn off the air conditioner for every day or let it turn off before leaving the house. In this blog, I will tell you what I have done. That is the solution for controlling the air conditioner via wifi - but this blog I will not intend for it to be a tutorial that everyone can follow." [...]
"Here i show you in simple steps how to control any device over the internet using the Ubidots IoT platform and the NodeMCU WiFi module with the Arduino IDE. " [...]
"Have you ever thought about mounting a digital scale using an ESP32 and a sensor (known as a load cell)? Today, I'll show you how to do this through a process that also allows for other laboratory tests, such as identifying the force that an engine performs on a point, among other examples. I will then demonstrate some concepts related to the use of load cells, capture cell data to build an example scale, and point out other possible applications of load cells. " [...]
"If you have a dust collector you know what a pain it is if the shavings backup into the filter. Some of the commercial detectors available are expensive and they rely on an optical sensor. Who would put anything optical inside a drum full of statically charged dust and shavings and expect it to work reliably? Using Eagle, the PCB I designed determines when a dust collector drum is full by detecting when a small DC motor driving a paddle inside the drum slows down due to shavings restricting the paddle. How it works: There is no on/off switch on the board, a switching power supply that powers the board is connected to the dust collectors motor control relay. The board is only active when the dust collector is running." [...]
"WhatThis button pad is made using a PCB and other components manufactured by Sparkfun. It is driven by an Arduino Mega. Each button is nice and squishy and satisfying to press, and it has an RGB LED inside!I've been using it to control animations I've coded in Processing. The button pad sends a message whenever a button is pressed, saying which button it was. Processing receives these messages and changes variables in the sketch depending on what was pressed. Why LEDs are cool." [...]
"In this Instructable I show how I my a Christmas star using neopixels, driven by a Attigny digispark board, mounted on a 3D printed star" [...]
"This is a temperature-controlled box that is fairly easy to make, and will allow warm stratification of Australian native seeds. Also, it good for a biohackers cheap agar plate incubator. Many plants will not germinate until after a warm period. This is an adaptation to prevent them from germinating in an unseasonable summer rain and then dying to subsequent lack of water. Storage of seeds at elevated temperatures is called hot stratification. This device is: Low power ( it runs from a 9v power pack "wall wart") Inexpensive: My build cost was around $40 Programmable: You can alternate between low and high (night and day) temperatures to cycle a summer of nights into just over a week !" [...]
"This is the continuation of a previous video where I used the 1.8-inch TFT display, which is a 128-by-160 graphic display. I think this graphic display is super cool. This time, our circuit will use an adapter and a 32 GB microSD. If youd like to see the first video, access: Value your project: use graphical display! " [...]
"ESP-01 is low cost esp8266 module, with built-in WIFI. It was created as Arduino WIFI module, but It's more power than an Arduino, than now if you must do a little module to control a relay or some simple digital datalogger It's the best solution. " [...]
"In this Instructable, you will learn how to make an LED cube step by step easily with Arduino. An LED cube is arrangement of LEDs in cubical fashion, where LEDs glow in a specific pattern. Lets Gets Started" [...]
"A soap bubble is ephemeral. It lasts only for a brief moment and quickly disappears even by a light breeze. The bubble's symbolic meaning as a metaphor of human's fragile and insubstantial life was first coined by a Roman writer Varro in the 1st century BC. Also, in 1572 the philosopher Erasmus reintroduced the Latin expression ''Homo bulla'' (''man is a bubble'') in his collection of proverbs, Adagia. This special characteristics of bubble attracted lots of artists in 17th century and also other periods. A paint, 'Cupid Blowing a Soap Bubble (1634)', by Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn is one of examples." [...]
"In this project, I created a "fiber optic" LED matrix using WS2801 LED strip and glue sticks. The light displays have a different look than similar LED cubes and a few advantages. First, you can't see the actual LEDs in the display because the glue sticks guide the light away from the LEDs. Second, the device requires much fewer LEDs to make up the volume. Because the top and bottom have different LED strips, the fiber optic cables can take on two different colors that mix in the center. There are tons of different color displays that can be achieved with the device." [...]
"In tutorial we will learn how to build a DIY Arduino RC transmitter. Very often I need wireless control for the projects that I make, so therefore I built this multifunctional radio controller which can be used for pretty much everything. Overview Now I can wirelessly control any Arduino project with just some small adjustments at the receiver side. This transmitter can be also used as any commercial RC transmitter for controlling RC toys, cars, drones and so on. For that purpose it just needs a simple Arduino receiver which then generates the appropriate signals for controlling those commercial RC devices. I will explain how everything works in this video through few examples of controlling an Arduino robot car, controlling the Arduino Ant Robot from my previous video and controlling a brushless DC motor using an ESC and some servo motors." [...]
"Control multiple OLED displays on one or more I2C buses simultaneously. The purpose of this code is to easily control mulitple SH1106/SSD1306 OLED displays using a minimum of GPIO lines. The number of displays is not tied to the number of I2C buses if they have unique addresses. For example, if you have 4 displays that all use address 0x3C, then you'll need 4 I2C buses to control them. This can be done with as few as 5 GPIO lines if you arrange them to share the SCL wire. In the other extreme, you can control 16 unique OLED displays with 9 wires (8 I2C buses) if you have 8 set to address 0x3C and 8 set to address 0x3D." [...]
"I long for small arcade which can place on a desk to play also make a use of my respberry Pi2 B+ board. Actually if you have no requirement of arcade case or attached speakers you can just connect your TV and PI as above to play but I decide to make a arcade case with 5 inch LCD and 5Watt speaker that shows my respect to retro games. " [...]
"Hello friends! This is another simple project for everyone who always want to program and upload code to their ATmega and Arduino projects. That's why I decided to make my ownUSBasp. This is a really simple and low-cost project that anyone can make. First, many thanks to PCBWay for their high-quality PCBs. Without PCBWay, I couldn't make this beautiful custom PCB prototype." [...]
"Get cozy.. the instructable youre about to read is something I have been working on for a year and a half (mostly during the night and weekends) so this read might be a bit longer than one would expect. Though there is a tremendous amount of work in this project already, there is still room for improvement. If you have ideas that can make this home automation tool better, please let me know! Motivation and Short Description The motivation came when a friend started talking about a small aquarium automation tool he built with Arduino. We both believed that through his knowledge in fish, plants, aquariums and electronics, plus my knowledge in embedded systems, electronics and programming we can make a great gadget that can help aquarium enthusiasts spend more time with aspects they like most, leaving the lights, filter, skimmer and others to be switched automatically through a predefined schedule. My very first tries were Arduino based." [...]
"Nowadays, PCBs can be bought extremely cheap from China. But let's say you need one within 24 hours, making your own is then the only option. Furthermore, it's way more challenging and fun! In this Instructable I will guide you through the whole process of making a professional double-sided PCB on a cheap CNC mill, without any chemicals! The PCB features: Double sided Soldermask (green layer) Silkscreen (white text) Copper vias Though hole plating It has taken me a lot of experimentation to get to this point. Especially the soldermask and silkscreen have required some work to come to a streamlined process." [...]
"Table of Contents: Step 1: Parts Step 2: Setting Up the Motor, CNC Shield, and UNO Step 3: Writing Code and Running the Motor Full Disclosure: One A4988 stepper driver was destroyed with reverse polarity during the making of this instructable. Warning! 12VDC being back fed into the UNO from the CNC shield and then from the UNO to your computer could potentially destroy your personal computer. This is why I am unplugging the USB cord from your PC before providing 12VDC to the CNC shield. Facts: The 28BYJ-48 is not broken out on it's header connector correctly (ignoring the red wire entirely) to be connected one for one to an A4988 stepstick driver. In short, the pink and yellow wires need to be crossed over.The spec." [...]
"An introduction video about my homemade Odroid-go can be found here. A full demonstration of the steps can be viewed in this youtube link Odroid-Go is a great invention from hardkernel. It can function as a game console with many emulators. Though the no. of emulators is only a small portion of those supported by Retro-pie or recalbox installed on Raspberry Pi, I found the response faster and smoother than running retro-pie or recalbox on a raspberry pi zero, while consuming much less power. Game save is by default and very handy." [...]
"A while ago i've made a custom desktop CNC mill. Since then i was upgrading it with new components. Last time i've added a second Arduino with 4 digit display to control RPM of my spindle using PID loop. I had to connect it with primary Arduino board with 5 wires, so they can communicate. But during my first test i broke a motor controller, so i've bought a new, more powerful one. It also had 5 more wires i had to connect." [...]
"Hello World! This is my first Instructable If you have any questions - please do not hesitate to ask . Target Audience: This project is applicable to anybody who has a passion when it comes to technology. Whether you are an expert or an absolute beginner when it comes to robotics. You would be able to create this project by following the instructions on this document. What you will need: (2) x Elegoo Uno R3 Controller Board (2) x Prototype Expansion Board (1) x HC-05 Bluetooth Module (1) x HC-06 Bluetooth Module (1) x Hand Glove (1) x GY-521 module (12) x M-M wires (6) x F-M wires (2) x 9V Battery with DC R/C Car (1) x Base Board (2) x Encoder Disc (2) x Wheel (2) x Deceleration DC motor (1) x Battery container (4) x M3*30 Screw Bar (8) x M3*6 Screw Bar (8) x M3 nut (1) x Switch (4) x Fastener (1) x Hammer caster (4) x AA Battery (1) x L9110S 2-CH H-bridge Stepper Motor Dual DC Motor Controller Board" [...]
"Whether youre already a kid or not; you are going to become one as soon you see bubbles floating around you! Youll be lying if you say that you dont pop one on seeing one! Alas, everything isnt the same for the one whos blowing the bubbles. But things are going to change now, with the DIY Dabble-controlled Bubble Machine! This aint no regular bubbling blowing machine. You can wirelessly control it using Dabble, our ingeniously-developed project-making mobile app." [...]
"IntroductionAs a beginner in electronics, you're pretty limited when it comes to powering your newly-fabricated circuits. Now, that would not be a problem if you make absolutely no mistakes. But, let's face it that it is a rarity. So, no matter whether you messed up a connection on the output side of your IC or you mix up the polarity of your capacitor something will get destroyed because your power supply will pump out the overcurrent according to it's set voltage no matter. What one solution to this problem is using a variable bench power supply with a current limit function so that we can prevent a big current flow when an error occurs but those are pretty expensive. Obviously, this is not usable when you create a battery powered project." [...]
"This article goes over the design of firmware for a custom PCB project: a precision inclinometer subsystem. I recently designed a custom PCB with a muRata SCA103T-D04 inclinometer IC. My goal was to build a subsystem with truly ridiculous precision, able to accurately sense down to a thousandth of a degree of incline. This article will cover some highlights of how I designed the firmware for the board's MSP430 microcontroller to gather and process data from the IC. To catch up on the project overall, please check out the articles below: How to Design a Precise Inclinometer on a Custom PCB (full project overview) Schematic Design PCB Layout Getting Started It is difficult to create any electronic circuit these days without having to do some amount of programming. Unfortunately, the knowledge you gain learning to create firmware for one manufacturer isn’t necessarily applicable to another." [...]
"Hi! I made this PCB calendar and binary clock with Eagle CAD. I used ATMEGA328P MCU (from Arduino) and 9x9 LED matrix. Dimensions for my board is 8cmx10cm(3.14inch x 3.34inch). It`s a bit too small but first: free version of Eagle CAD allows 80cm^2 and second: jlcpcb.com max size for 2$ pcb is 10cmx10cm. I will be working on much better version of this project with STM32L series MCU and DCF77." [...]
"A tutorial on How to make an InfraRed (IR) proximity sensor circuit along with detailed explanation on how the circuit works. The sensitivity or Range of detection can also be controlled by adjusting the potentiometer. " [...]
"I wanted to make something special for my wedding tables chart, and I thought this was a good way of making it personal, as it reflects my love (addiction) for electronic projects. So the plan was to make a big wood panel with the plan of the room on it, including, of course, the tables and their names (they are plant names, in french). The guests received a card with an RFID sticker on it along with their invitation. On the back of the card was written (in french) something like "This card is of great importance, keep it safe and carry it on you at the wedding". I didn't want them to know what it was for until the wedding. The chart has several elements : a TFT display, an RFID reader, a green LED and a red LED, a push button and one strip of 3 LEDs for each table." [...]
"i first made this sollar light last summer when we had problems with electricity in our cabin (tree fall on power line and we didn't have any lightsource when we wanted to stay there over night) it works werry well and when my friend saw it he ask me if i can make him something simmilar for camping so i decided to make PCB because it has problems with overheating and soldering componnents together just with wires was too long process it is made out of three LiIon battery chargers for three 18650 batteries (you can use any Liion battery) each battery have its own charger with protection circuits and if solderable jumpers are not soldered you can use each battery separately when you connect one of these jumpers they will conect battery to battery out and to step up converter if you add switch or jumper to switch terminal out terminals from step up converter are marked as 5V out because i using USB lights from ebay but you can also use it for whatever you want just set different voltage" [...]
"The LilyPad Vibe Board is a small vibration motor that can be sewn into projects with conductive thread and controlled by a LilyPad Arduino. The board can be used as a physical indicator on clothing and costumes for haptic feedback. Attaching to a LilyPad Arduino The LilyPad Vibe Board has two sew tabs: Power (+) and Ground (–). Next to each tab is a white label for reference. For power, you can connect an input voltage anywhere between 3.3V and 5V. The motor can vibrate faster as you provide more voltage." [...]
"Meet Serge, the interactive indoor planter. Unlike other self watering planters Serge wants your love and attention to grow. A soil moisture sensor measures the moisture of the soil which you can read from the LCD. With just one touch on the sensor you'll provide Serge with fresh water. In this instructable I'm explaining how to make a plant watering system with a touch sensor powered by Arduino Uno. " [...]
"Ever wanted your own arcade machine but can't afford or fit a full sized one? Here's the solution. Using a Raspberry Pi, 5-inch screen & 2 USB controllers you can create your own with as many games as you like from several different platforms. Let's get started..." [...]
"This is mini cnc drawing machine have made a mini size CNC plotter machine out of mini stepper motor mechanism To controller this CNC machine we need a microcontroller board called arduino Nano and we need motor driver IC for each stepper motor that is L293D IC. All the electronics components are solder on a costume made PCB. I prepared a PCB layout and order it from JLCPCB.COM as soon as PCB are received it just need to solder header pins,PCB terminals & CNC is ready to load code to run. JCLPCB is PCB manufacturing company they provide upto 10 prototype PCB in just 2$. If you need any PCB to order for you future electronics projects you can consider to visit JLCPCB.COM" [...]
That's all Folks!