2019-03-07 - Nº 201
Esta é a Newsletter Nº 201 que se apresenta com o mesmo formato que as anteriores. Se gostar da Newsletter partilhe-a!
Todas as Newsletters encontram-se indexadas no link.
Esta Newsletter tem os seguintes tópicos:
Faz hoje anos que nascia, em 1839 - Ludwig Mond. Este Químico e industrial alemão-britânico aperfeiçoou um método de fabricação de soda melhorando o processo alcalino da Solvay. Mond desenvolveu um processo para a extracção de níquel quando, com os seus assistentes, descobriu acidentalmente compostos de carbonila de metal enquanto investigava por que as válvulas de níquel estavam corroídas pelo monóxido de carbono. Outras pesquisas levaram à síntese de mais carbonilos metálicos, que Lord Kelvin descreveu como "metais com asas" e ao processo de níquel-carbonila da Mond para refinar o níquel. O termo "célula de combustível" foi apelidado em 1889 por Ludwig Mond e Charles Langer, que tentaram construir o primeiro dispositivo prático para usar gás de carvão industrial e de ar, para gerar electricidade ao reagir hidrogénio com oxigénio.
Faz também anos hoje que nascia, em 1900, Fritz London. Este Físico germano-americano, com Walter Heitler, inventou o primeiro tratamento mecânico quântico da molécula de hidrogénio, enquanto trabalhava com Erwin Schrödinger na Universidade de Zurique. Num artigo (1927), eles desenvolveram uma equação de onda para a molécula de hidrogénio com a qual foi possível calcular valores aproximados do potencial de ionização da molécula, calor de dissociação e outras constantes. Estes valores previstos foram razoavelmente consistentes com valores empíricos obtidos por meios espectroscópicos e químicos. Esta teoria da ligação química de moléculas homo-polares é considerada um dos avanços mais importantes da química moderna. A abordagem é mais tarde chamada de teoria da ligação de valência.
Faz igualmente anos hoje que nascia, em 1917, Betty Holberton. Esta engenheira informetica Norte-americana foi uma dos seis programadores originais do ENIAC, o primeiro computador digital electrónico de propósito geral, e foi a inventora dos "breakpoints" no "debug" de computadores. Programado o ENIAC para realizar cálculos para trajectórias balísticas electronicamente para o Laboratório de Pesquisa Balística (BRL). Ela ajudou a desenvolver o UNIVAC, projectando painéis de controle que colocam o teclado numérico ao lado do teclado e persuadindo os engenheiros a substituir o exterior preto do UNIVAC pelo tom cinza-bege que veio a ser a cor universal dos computadores. Holberton trabalhou com John Mauchly para desenvolver o conjunto de instruções C-10 para o BINAC, que é considerado o protótipo de todas as linguagens de programação modernas. Ela também participou do desenvolvimento de padrões iniciais para as linguagens de programação COBOL e FORTRAN com Grace Hopper. Mais tarde, como funcionária do National Bureau of Standards, ela foi muito activa nas duas primeiras revisões da Linguagem Fortran ("FORTRAN 77" e "Fortran 90").
Por fim, faz anos hoje que nascia, em 1930, Stanley Miller. Este Químico norte-americano fez uma série de experiências famosas, para determinar a possível origem da vida a partir de substâncias químicas inorgânicas na terra primitiva, recém-formada. Ele passou por descargas eléctricas (simulando trovoadas) através de misturas de gases redutores, como hidrogénio, amónia, metano e água, que se acredita terem formado a atmosfera mais antiga. Os dias de análise mostraram que os produtos químicos resultantes incluíam glicerina e alanina, os aminoácidos mais simples, os blocos de construção básicos das proteínas. Outros compostos incluíram ureia, aldeídos e ácidos carboxílicos. Assim, uma "sopa primitiva" é a explicação mais plausível actualmente aceita, embora incompleta, da origem das complexas moléculas orgânicas da vida.
Nesta semana que passou Linus Torvalds anunciou o primeiro Kernel Linux 5.0. O ciclo de desenvolvimento do Kernel Linux 5.0 começou à dois meses, durante os quais sete RC (Release Candidate) foram publicados para testar o caminho para esta grande mudança de versão. Embora a principal mudança de versão não tenha grande significado, o kernel do Linux 5.0 apresenta um conjunto interessante de novidades, como o suporte FreeSync no driver gráfico de código aberto AMDGPU para permitir uma experiência de visualização livre de falhas em máquinas com GPUs AMD Radeon e LCDs com taxas de actualização dinâmicas. Foi também introduzido um novo scheduler amigo da poupança energética que leva à gestão de energia melhorada em dispositivos que usam CPUs big.LITTLE ARM, suporte à criptografia do sistema de ficheiros Adiantum em fscrypt para dispositivos de baixa energia e suporte a ficheiros de swap no filesystem Btrfs. Outras alterações notáveis incluem suporte para o recurso Generic Receive Offload (GRO) na implementação UDP (User Datagram Protocol), suporte para o controlador de recursos cpuset no cgroupv2, assim como suporte para o sistema de ficheiros binderfs que permite executar várias instâncias do Android.
Também nesta semana que passou ficámos a saber que a Volvo irá testar um autocarro sem condutor em tamanho real em Singapura. A alta densidade de Singapura tem incentivando o desenvolvimento de tecnologias sem condutor na esperança de que seus habitantes usem mais veículos partilhados e transporte público. Testes com um autocarro no campus universitário podem começar dentro de algumas semanas ou meses, antes de se mudarem para vias públicas após aprovações regulamentares, disse o presidente da NTU, Subra Suresh, a repórteres.
Na Newsletter desta semana apresentamos diversos projetos de maker. São apresentadas as revistas newelectronics de 25 e 26 de Fevereiro.
João Alves ([email protected])
O conteúdo da Newsletter encontra-se sob a licença Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Novidades da Semana
"The long-anticipated Linux 5.0 kernel series is now available for general public as Linus Torvalds put an end to the development cycle today, releasing the final version into the wild. The development cycle of the Linux 5.0 kernel series kicked off two months ago, during which seven RC (Release Candidate) milestones were published for testing paving the road for this major version change, which, sadly, doesn't mean anything besides the fact that running Linux 5.x is cooler than running Linux 4.x. "The overall changes for all of the 5.0 release are much bigger. But I'd like to point out (yet again) that we don't do feature-based releases, and that "5.0" doesn't mean anything more than that the 4.x numbers started getting big enough that I ran out of fingers and toes," said Linus Torvalds in a mailing list announcement. Here's what's new in Linux kernel 5.0 While the major version change doesn't mean a thing, the Linux 5.0 kernel does introduce some interesting bits, such as FreeSync support in the AMDGPU open-source graphics driver to allow for a stutter-free viewing experience on machines with AMD Radeon GPUs and LCDs with dynamic refresh rates. Linux kernel 5.0 also introduces a new energy-aware scheduling feature that leads to improved power management in devices using ARM big.LITTLE CPUs, support for the Adiantum file system encryption in fscrypt for low power devices, and support for swap files in the Btrfs file system." [...]
"Sweden’s Volvo Buses and Singapore’s Nanyang Technological University (NTU) on Tuesday unveiled a full-size autonomous electric bus for testing this year in the city state. High-density Singapore has been encouraging the development of driverless technology in hopes that its residents will use more shared vehicles and public transport. Tests with one bus on the university campus could begin in a few weeks to months, before moving to public roads after regulatory approvals, NTU President Subra Suresh told reporters. He hoped the tests could be extended to public roads in a year. A second bus will undergo tests at a city bus depot. The 12-metre (39 ft) vehicle can carry up to 80 passengers and is the world’s first full-size, autonomous electric bus, Volvo and NTU said." [...]
"Version 12.0 of the Unicode Standard is now available, including the core specification, annexes, and data files. This version adds 554 characters, for a total of 137,929 characters. These additions include four new scripts, for a total of 150 scripts, as well as 61 new emoji characters. The new scripts and characters in Version 12.0 add support for lesser-used languages and unique written requirements worldwide, including: Elymaic, historically used to write Achaemenid Aramaic in the southwestern portion of modern-day Iran Nandinagari, historically used to write Sanskrit and Kannada in southern India Nyiakeng Puachue Hmong, used to write modern White Hmong and Green Hmong languages in Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, France, Australia, Canada, and the United States Wancho, used to write the modern Wancho language in India, Myanmar, and Bhutan Additional support for lesser-used languages and scholarly work was extended worldwide, including: Miao script additions to write several Miao and Yi dialects in China Hiragana and Katakana small letters, used to write archaic Japanese Tamil historic fractions and symbols, used in South India Lao letters used to write Pali Latin letters used in Egyptological and Ugaritic transliteration Hieroglyph format controls, enabling full formatting of quadrats for Egyptian Hieroglyphs The Egyptian temple ceiling painting shown above (from the Wikipedia article on Medinet Habu) includes a line of hieroglyphic text. That exact text is rendered again below the painting, represented in Unicode plain text, illustrating the use of the new hieroglyphic format controls, as well as cartouche brackets and directional controls. The example was developed by Andrew Glass, based on Microsoft’s Segoe UI Historic font, with outlines designed by James P. Allen." [...]
"Samsung's eMRAM will further strengthen the company’s technology leadership in embedded memory Samsung Electronics the world leader in semiconductor technology, today announced that it has commenced mass production of its first commercial embedded magnetic random access memory (eMRAM) product based on the company’s 28-nanometer(nm) fully-depleted silicon-on-insulator (FD-SOI) process technology, called 28FDS. As eFlash has faced scalability challenges due to a charge storage-based operation, eMRAM has been the most promising successor since its resistance-based operation allows strong scalability while also possessing outstanding technical characteristics of memory semiconductors such as nonvolatility, random access, and strong endurance. With today’s announcement, Samsung has proved its capability to overcome technical hurdles and demonstrated the possibility for further scalability of embedded memory technology to 28nm process node and beyond. Samsung’s 28FDS-based eMRAM solution offers unprecedented power and speed advantages with lower cost. Since eMRAM does not require an erase cycle before writing data, its writing speed is approximately a thousand times faster than eFlash. Also, eMRAM uses lower voltages than eFlash, and does not consume electric power when in power-off mode, resulting in great power efficiency." [...]
"Built on the proven BeagleBoard.org® open source Linux approach, BeagleBone® AI fills the gap between small SBCs and more powerful industrial computers. Based on the Texas Instruments AM5729, developers have access to the powerful SoC with the ease of BeagleBone® Black header and mechanical compatibility. BeagleBone® AI makes it easy to explore how artificial intelligence (AI) can be used in everyday life via the TI C66x digital-signal-processor (DSP) cores and embedded-vision-engine (EVE) cores supported through an optimized TIDL machine learning OpenCL API with pre-installed tools. Focused on everyday automation in industrial, commercial and home applications. " [...]
"The DFAB House is the world’s first home designed, planned, and built with mainly digital processes—and it's entirely powered by the sun. Step inside the newly completed DFAB House in Dübendorf, Switzerland, and you'll be whisked away to a world of science fiction. From the swirling grooves on the 3D-printed ceiling panels to the networked household appliances (like an intelligent teapot that can seemingly be brought to a boil by itself), this experimental building is a snapshot of what our future homes could be—digitally planned and built by giant robots. Developed by eight ETH Zurich professors in collaboration with planning professionals and industry experts, the DFAB House is a three-story residential unit perched atop Empa and Eawag’s NEST research and innovation building. The structure showcases an array of pioneering ETH-developed construction processes, including: Mesh Mould technology, in which an autonomous "In Situ Fabricator" robot builds a 3D mesh formwork for concrete load-bearing walls; Smart Slab, a lightweight concrete slab with 3D-printed sand formwork that’s less than half the weight of a conventional concrete slab; Smart Dynamic Casting, an automatic robotic slip-forming process; and Spatial Timber Assemblies, a digital prefabrication process that uses a dual robot system to create timber frame modules. Although robots and digital processes are the predominate building forces involved, people are still very much part of the construction process." [...]
Ciência e Tecnologia
"Researchers at ETH Zurich have used trapped calcium ions to demonstrate a new method for making quantum computers immune to errors. To do so, they created a periodic oscillatory state of an ion that circumvents the usual limits to measurement accuracy. When building a quantum computer, one needs to reckon with errors – in both senses of the word. Quantum bits or “qubits”, which can take on the logical values 0 and 1 at the same time and thus carry out calculations faster, are extremely susceptible to perturbations. A possible remedy for this is quantum error correction, which means that each qubit is represented “redundantly” in several copies, such that errors can be detected and eventually corrected without disturbing the fragile quantum state of the qubit itself. Technically this is very demanding." [...]
"This 21st-century invention was possible by synthesising special kinds of gold nanoparticles with different sizes. Those nanoparticles were then embedded in a common 3D printing material (PVA), available in any shop, and 3D printed with a standard off-the-shelf 3D printer. A bit of gold The amount of gold in the material is minute, a mere 0.07 weight percent. Such a small amount of gold doesnt change the printability of the material, which remains the same as with normal material. However, even at this low amount of gold, the nanocomposite material shows a distinct dichroic effect showing a brown opaque colour in reflection (when the illumination and the observer are on the same side) and a violet transparent colour in transmission (when the illumination and the observer are on opposite sides). New class of 3D printable nanomaterials The material used in this new research is a standard material that can be printed with any off the shelf 3D printer and it opens the doors to a new class of 3D printable nanomaterials where the intrinsic properties of the nano world, in this case optical properties, are retained even in 3D printed objects." [...]
"Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientists and engineers have created the first research-grade, open-architecture multibeam metal 3D printer and are developing advanced diagnostics to understand the mechanics behind the multibeam process under a project funded by the Air Force Research Laboratory. To address the need for larger builds and faster print times, commercial metal 3D printer manufacturers have turned to simultaneous use of multiple laser beams during a build. However, the research and development needed to optimize the multibeam process remains. Working alongside GE Global Research to design and develop a commercial-grade open-architecture, multibeam platform, Lab scientists and engineers are performing focused experiments as part of a larger overall project funded by America Makes, a private-public partnership aimed at accelerating additive manufacturing and 3D printing. The project also would require upgrading software developed by LLNL and GE to incorporate multibeam technology. The 18-month project started last spring." [...]
"Identifying cybersecurity threats from raw internet data can be like locating a needle in a haystack. The amount of internet traffic data generated in a 48-hour period, for example, is too massive for oneor even 100 laptops to process into something digestible for human analysts. That's why analystsrely on sampling to search for potential threats, selecting small segments of data to look at in depth, hoping to find suspicious behavior. While this type of sampling may work for some tasks, such as identifying popular IP addresses, it is inadequate for finding subtler threatening trends. "If you're trying to detect anomalous behavior, by definition that behavior is rare and unlikely," says Vijay Gadepally, a senior staff member at the Lincoln Laboratory Supercomputing Center (LLSC). "If you're sampling, it makes an already rare thing nearly impossible to find."" [...]
"Photo: Mitsubishi Electric Equipment used in experimental sensor attack space, including acoustic and magnetic signal generators. Sensor-based automatic control technology is now used in hundreds of applications as varied as vehicle accident prevention, agricultural monitoring, and self-balancing robots. But as sensor interaction with the environment increases to enable control systems to see, listen, and sense their environment more accurately, the potential for cyber attacks also grows. To counter this danger, Mitsubishi Electric has developed what it believes is the first sensor-security technology for detecting inconsistencies that appear in sensor measurements when a system is under attack. Development was supported by Japans New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). A key component in automatic control systems is sensor fusion technology." [...]
"Researchers at Tokyo Tech report a unipolar n-type transistor with a world-leading electron mobility performance of up to 7.16 cm2 V−1 s−1. This achievement heralds an exciting future for organic electronics, including the development of innovative flexible displays and wearable technologies. Researchers worldwide are on the hunt for novel materials that can improve the performance of basic components required to develop organic electronics. Now, a research team at Tokyo Tech's Department of Materials Science and Engineering including Tsuyoshi Michinobu and Yang Wang report a way of increasing the electron mobility of semiconducting polymers, which have previously proven difficult to optimize. Their high-performance material achieves an electron mobility of 7.16 cm2 V−1 s−1, representing more than a 40 percent increase over previous comparable results. In their study published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, they focused on enhancing the performance of materials known as n-type semiconducting polymers." [...]
"When scientists examine very small and swift objects they see the laws of physics working wildly differently than in the everyday “normal-sized” world. Observing these counterintuitive happenings in larger objects has always been difficult, but University of Queensland physicists – part of an Austrian/UK research team – have created a new technique to make the observation of quantum movement much easier. The discovery could aid the take-up of quantum physics in new technologies – such as ultra-sensitive motion sensors similar to those in mobile phones – which harness quantum motion’s unusual properties. Dr Farid Shahandeh, who did his PhD at UQ and is now at Swansea University, said the new technique had similarities to “listening” to a violin by looking at its strings. “When a musician plays a violin, each string vibrates at a specific frequency to create a specific sound and the combination or ‘superposition’ of all those frequencies creates the music you hear,” he said. “If you cannot hear the music, just like Beethoven in the last decade of his life, it is extremely difficult to grasp what is being played only by watching the bow’s strokes." [...]
"First time such codes applied to real quantum technology Scientists at the University of Sydney have for the first time demonstrated improvement in quantum computers by using codes designed to detect and discard errors in the logic gates of such machines. This is really the first time that the promised benefit for quantum logic gates from theory has been realised in an actual quantum machine, said Dr Robin Harper, lead author of a new paper published this week in the prestigious journal, Physical Review Letters. Quantum logic gates are formed by entangled networks of a small number of quantum bits, or qubits. They are the switches that allow quantum computers to run algorithms, or recipes, to process information and perform calculations. Dr Harper and his colleague Professor Steven Flammia, from the School of Physics and University of Sydney Nano Institute, used IBMs quantum computer to test error detection codes. They demonstrated an order of magnitude improvement in reducing infidelity, or error rates, in quantum logic gates, the switches that will form the basis of fully functioning quantum computers." [...]
"Mechanical Strength Improved by 1600% while Weight Reduced by 50% A collaborative team of researchers from Khalifa University, Kingston University, and the University of Liverpool have leveraged the unique capabilities of additive manufacturing – or 3-dimensional (3D) printing – to design ultra-strong, lightweight and functional components that will make the structures of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) significantly lighter and stronger, allowing for advanced applications. The results of their research were also published on 3Dprint.com, an authority on the 3D printing industry. KU’s research team, led by Associate Professor of Aerospace Engineering Dr. Yahya Hashem Abdallah Zweiri, was able to increase the mechanical strength of 3D printed plastic parts by 1600% through a sandwich-structured composite solution and reduce the weight of 3D printed drone structures by 50% through topology infill optimization methods, which optimize the material layout within its design space and its interior structure. Results will support the advancement of the UAE’s national innovation goals, specifically in the targeted area of autonomous transportation, which is identified by the UAE Economic Vision 2030 as a key area of focus. “3D printing has been limited by factors like production costs and low material strength, underscoring the need for disruptive developments in advanced manufacturing. With so many of KU and the UAE’s goals dependent on climate and energy research, and so much of that research dependent upon drones, it was prudent that we focus our 3D printing research on more practical applications like drone tech,” said Dr. Zweiri." [...]
"Efficient chip enables low-power devices to run today’s toughest quantum encryption schemes. MIT researchers have developed a novel cryptography circuit that can be used to protect low-power “internet of things” (IoT) devices in the coming age of quantum computing. Quantum computers can in principle execute calculations that today are practically impossible for classical computers. Bringing quantum computers online and to market could one day enable advances in medical research, drug discovery, and other applications. But there’s a catch: If hackers also have access to quantum computers, they could potentially break through the powerful encryption schemes that currently protect data exchanged between devices. Today’s most promising quantum-resistant encryption scheme is called “lattice-based cryptography,” which hides information in extremely complicated mathematical structures." [...]
"Moreover, researchers have succeeded in increasing its output dramatically by providing the panel with its own cooling system. All over the world people are moving to the cities. This increases the demand for eco-friendly and locally-sourced electricity, and is the basis for the research project called PV-Adapt. One answer to new energy demands is to install building-integrated PV (BIPV) cells, either in the form of roof tiles or facade elements. However, the feasibility of this will require lower costs and more efficient output. Building-integrated PV cells that supply both heat and electricity have been developed at SINTEF’s solar cell lab in Trondheim." [...]
"Institute for Molecular Engineering breakthrough could lead to new display or sensor technologies Liquid crystals, with their uniform molecular structure and orientation, offer exciting possibilities for future technology. They are already the basis of displays, which use the crystals’ orientation to exhibit a wide array of colors. Researchers have wondered whether they could manipulate tiny defects in the crystals to introduce new functions within the liquid—as microchannels for a tiny circuit, or to host chemical reactions, for example. But the first step is to keep the defects stable. Researchers with the Institute for Molecular Engineering at the University of Chicago, along with partners at the University of Ljubljana, have shown that by using a combination of flow and light, they can create defects that remain stable in the liquid crystal over long periods of time. The breakthrough, published Feb. 15 in the journal Science Advances, could ultimately result in using liquids in new ways, such as to create new kinds of autonomous materials or nanoscale reactors." [...]
"BeyondC research project with partners from Austria and Germany starts in March The recently granted collaboration project “Quantum Information Systems Beyond Classical Capabilities (BeyondC)” coordinated by the University of Vienna will exploit the unique features of quantum science to go beyond the capabilities of classical technology. World-leading scientists from eleven research groups in Austria and one partner group at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics in Germany will combine their wide-ranging expertise to demonstrate quantum superiority by realizing the first medium-sized quantum information processing device. The control of quantum systems is one of the most important and influential achievements of the twentieth century. In particular, quantum information theory has developed into a vast area of research and has achieved visibility far beyond its own boundaries. A prominent example is the intense research that, over the last decades, has led to quantum algorithms for quantum computation, simulation, and annealing. Furthermore, the tremendous progress has paved the way for protocols, sets of procedures for transmitting data between computers, for benchmarking and correcting computing errors as well as for proposals for classical and quantum machine learning." [...]
"The additive manufacture of large-volume plastic components is a time-consuming undertaking. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology IWU have now developed Screw Extrusion Additive Manufacturing (SEAM), a system and process that is eight times faster than conventional 3D printing. Visitors will be able to see the ultrafast 3D printer in action at the Fraunhofer Booth C22 in Hall 2 during the Hannover Messe from April 1 through 5, 2019. 3D printers that build small souvenirs layer by layer from melted plastic are often used at tradeshows. It can take up to an hour to produce a pocket-sized souvenir. This process is far too slow for the mass-production of components, as required by the automotive industry, for instance." [...]
"The concept of the laser can be time-reversed: the perfect light source then becomes the perfect light absorber. Scientists at TU Wien have found a way to build such an anti-laser, based on random scattering. The laser is the perfect light source: when being provided with energy, it generates light of a specific, well-defined colour. It is also possible, however, to create the exact opposite – an object that perfectly absorbs light of a particular colour and dissipates the energy almost completely. At TU Wien (Vienna), a method has now been developed to make use of this effect, even in very complicated systems in which light waves are randomly scattered in all directions. The method was developed by the team in Vienna with the help of computer simulations, and confirmed by experiments in cooperation with the University of Nice." [...]
"Scientists from Heriot-Watt University have welded glass and metal together using an ultrafast laser system, in a breakthrough for the manufacturing industry. Various optical materials such as quartz, borosilicate glass and even sapphire were all successfully welded to metals like aluminium, titanium and stainless steel using the Heriot-Watt laser system, which provides very short, picosecond pulses of infrared light in tracks along the materials to fuse them together. "Being able to weld glass and metals together will be a huge step forward in manufacturing and design flexibility." - Professor Duncan Hand The new process could transform the manufacturing sector and have direct applications in the aerospace, defence, optical technology and even healthcare fields. Professor Duncan Hand, director of the five-university EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Laser-based Production Processes based at Heriot-Watt, said: “Traditionally it has been very difficult to weld together dissimilar materials like glass and metal due to their different thermal properties - the high temperatures and highly different thermal expansions involved cause the glass to shatter. “Being able to weld glass and metals together will be a huge step forward in manufacturing and design flexibility." [...]
"Fractional Quantum Hall quasiparticles experimentally shown to interfere Qubits, the units used to encode information in quantum computing, are not all created equal. Some researchers believe that topological qubits, which are tougher and less susceptible to environmental noise than other kinds, may be the best medium for pushing quantum computing forward. Quantum physics deals with how fundamental particles interact and sometimes come together to form new particles called quasiparticles. Quasiparticles appear in fancy theoretical models, but observing and measuring them experimentally has been a challenge. With the creation of a new device that allows researchers to probe interference of quasiparticles, we may be one giant leap closer. The findings were published Monday in Nature Physics." [...]
"Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers have 3D printed live cells that convert glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide gas (CO2), a substance that resembles beer, demonstrating a technology that can lead to high biocatalytic efficiency. Bioprinting living mammalian cells into complex 3D scaffolds has been widely studied and demonstrated for applications ranging from tissue regeneration to drug discovery to clinical implementation. In addition to mammalian cells, there is a growing interest in printing functional microbes as biocatalysts. Microbes are extensively used in industry to convert carbon sources into valuable end-product chemicals that have applications in the food industry, biofuel production, waste treatment and bioremediation. Using live microbes instead of inorganic catalysts has advantages of mild reaction conditions, self-regeneration, low cost and catalytic speciﬁcity. The new research, which appears as an ACS Editors' Choice article in the journal Nano Letters, shows that the additive manufacturing of live whole-cells can assist in research in microbial behaviors, communication, interaction with the microenvironment and for new bioreactors with high volumetric productivity." [...]
"Researchers at Tokyo Tech have developed an easy-to-use, tunable biosensor tailored for the terahertz (THz) range. Images of mouse organs obtained using their new device verify that the sensor is capable of distinguishing between different tissues. The achievement expands possibilities for terahertz applications in biological analysis and future diagnostics. Plasmonics is a term that describes both the study and applications of phenomena related to the interaction between light and metal surface electrons. Plasmonic-based materials are of interest in the development of technologies ranging from high-performance electronics to ultra-sensitive biosensors. Scientists are exploring the possibilities of combining the advantages of plasmonics with emerging terahertz technologies as a way of developing new and enhanced methods for non-invasive detection and analysis." [...]
"Rutgers-led team finds a new way to control light emitted by a hybrid crystal Scientists have found a new way to control light emitted by exotic crystal semiconductors, which could lead to more efficient solar cells and other advances in electronics, according to a Rutgers-led study in the journal Materials Today. Their discovery involves crystals called hybrid perovskites, which consist of interlocking organic and inorganic materials, and they have shown great promise for use in solar cells. The finding could also lead to novel electronic displays, sensors and other devices activated by light and bring increased efficiency at a lower cost to manufacturing of optoelectronics, which harness light. The Rutgers-led team found a new way to control light (known as photoluminescence) emitted when perovskites are excited by a laser. The intensity of light emitted by a hybrid perovskite crystal can be increased by up to 100 times simply by adjusting voltage applied to an electrode on the crystal surface. “To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the photoluminescence of a material has been reversibly controlled to such a wide degree with voltage,” said senior author Vitaly Podzorov, a professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy in the School of Arts and Sciences at Rutgers University–New Brunswick." [...]
"With supercomputers, scientists find promising new materials for solar cells. Finding the best light-harvesting chemicals for use in solar cells can feel like searching for a needle in a haystack. Over the years, researchers have developed and tested thousands of different dyes and pigments to see how they absorb sunlight and convert it to electricity. Sorting through all of them requires an innovative approach. Now, thanks to a study that combines the power of supercomputing with data science and experimental methods, researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Cambridge in England have developed a novel “design to device” approach to identify promising materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). DSSCs can be manufactured with low-cost, scalable techniques, allowing them to reach competitive performance-to-price ratios." [...]
"Coating graphene with wax makes for a less contaminated surface during device manufacturing. To protect graphene from performance-impairing wrinkles and contaminants that mar its surface during device fabrication, MIT researchers have turned to an everyday material: wax. Graphene is an atom-thin material that holds promise for making next-generation electronics. Researchers are exploring possibilities for using the exotic material in circuits for flexible electronics and quantum computers, and in a variety of other devices. But removing the fragile material from the substrate it’s grown on and transferring it to a new substrate is particularly challenging. Traditional methods encase the graphene in a polymer that protects against breakage but also introduces defects and particles onto graphene’s surface." [...]
"Scientists from the Higher School of Economics, Manchester University, the Ulsan National Institute of Science & Technology and the Korea Institute of Science and Technology have developed a novel technology, which combines the fabrication procedures of planar and vertical heterostructures in order to assemble graphene-based high-quality single-electron transistors. This technology could considerably expand the scope of research on two-dimensional materials by introducing a broader platform for the investigation of various devices and physical phenomena. The manuscript is published as an article in the Nature Communications. In the study, it was demonstrated that high-quality graphene quantum dots (GQDs), regardless of whether they were ordered or randomly distributed, could be successfully synthesised in a matrix of monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). Here, the growth of GQDs within the layer of hBN was shown to be catalytically supported by the platinum (Pt) nanoparticles distributed in-between the hBN and supporting oxidised silicon (SiO2) wafer, when the whole structure was treated by the heat in the methane gas (CH4). It was also shown, that due to the same lattice structure (hexagonal) and small lattice mismatch (~1.5%) of graphene and hBN, graphene islands grow in the hBN with passivated edge states, thereby giving rise to the formation of defectless quantum dots embedded in the hBN monolayer." [...]
"Scientists check whether information is lost or merely hidden inside a small quantum computer. Researchers at the Joint Quantum Institute have implemented an experimental test for quantum scrambling, a chaotic shuffling of the information stored among a collection of quantum particles. Their experiments on a group of seven atomic ions, reported in the March 7 issue of Nature, demonstrate a new way to distinguish between scrambling—which maintains the amount of information in a quantum system but mixes it up—and true information loss. The protocol may one day help verify the calculations of quantum computers, which harness the rules of quantum physics to process information in novel ways. “In terms of the difficulty of quantum algorithms that have been run, we’re toward the top of that list,” says Kevin Landsman, a graduate student at JQI and the lead author of the new paper. “This is a very complicated experiment to run, and it takes a very high level of control.” The research team, which includes JQI Fellow and UMD Distinguished University Professor Christopher Monroe and JQI Fellow Norbert Linke, performed their scrambling tests by carefully manipulating the quantum behavior of seven charged atomic ions using well-timed sequences of laser pulses." [...]
A documentação é parte essencial do processo de aprendizagem e a Internet além de artigos interessantes de explorar também tem alguma documentação em formato PDF interessante de ler. Todos os links aqui apresentados são para conteúdo disponibilizado livremente pelo editor do livro.
"New Electronics is a fortnightly magazine focusing on technological innovation, news and the latest developments in the electronics sector. Downloadable as a digital page turner or pdf file, or offered as a hard copy, the New Electronics magazine is available in a format to suit you" [...]
"New Electronics is a fortnightly magazine focusing on technological innovation, news and the latest developments in the electronics sector. Downloadable as a digital page turner or pdf file, or offered as a hard copy, the New Electronics magazine is available in a format to suit you" [...]
Diversos Projetos interessantes.
"Hi everyone! Winter has arrived, and so I had to check the thermal insulation of my out of town residence dacha. And it just turned out a famous Chinese marketplace started to sell cheap thermal camera modules. So I decided to DIY it up and build a rather exotic and useful thing — a heat visor for the home. Why not? Especially since I had a Raspberry Pi lying around anyway… The result is down below." [...]
"The internet is full of tutorials on how to read digital and analog sensors, now it is time to do something useful with this data. Story While working very concentrated on projects (like this one) it happens quite often to me that I forget about my environment. Suddenly sitting in the dark or not recognizing that fresh air is needed is not uncommon. Previously, I purchased a well known branded fancy Smart Sensing Weather Station, and I really loved how packed it was with sensors. I loved how much data they provided. But tinkering with it, I realized, I didn’t have local access to my personal data on a bloody device that is literally sitting next to me." [...]
"There's something so captivating about infinity mirrors. Maybe they just look cool or maybe they just remind me of being a kid and looking down the shelves in the produce aisle. Either way, dad and I really enjoyed making this lamp. As I am sure you're all aware of, infinity mirrors are nothing new, however, we believe that there are plenty of little twists on this old-time favorite to make it one of a kind! Probably the hardest part of this build, making the sides to your infinity cage will require some practice with getting the angles right. For the tops and bottoms of your sides, you'll need to cut them at 16 degrees from 90." [...]
"This little project combines the previous accelerometer-gyroscope code with the 3D rotating OLED cube to produce a 3D cube which responds to gyro input, making it possible to "peek around" the cube with simulated perspective, or make it spin with a flick of the wrist. Libraries We need two Python drivers for this project — one for the 128x64 OLED display, and one for the gyroscope. The display in this example uses the ssd1306 chip, so we can use the module available in the MicroPython repository. The gyroscope is a MPU6050, a Python library for which is available from @adamjezek98 here on Github. Download both files and upload them to your controller using ampy or the web REPL. Once the libraries are in place, connect to your controller and try and import both packages." [...]
"Hi, in this Instructable I want to show you, how you can build your own CNC-Mill for less then 500. I designed this machine for CNC-beginners, who don't want to spend a lot of money for their first experiences with CNC machines but also expecting a rigid and professional looking CNC. This machine is perfect for maker, tinkerer and everyone who wants to start CNC-Machining. In the pricerange of sub 500 you will not find any other CNC with these features: 710 Watt spindle motor MGN linear-rails on all axis1204 ballscrews on all axiseffective workarea of 250x220mmmax. travelspeed of 3000mm/min (at 12V)high accuracy of 0.1mm in all axis super rigidportal frame (out of one piece of wood and aluminium extrusions)Below on this site, you will find a detailed instruction + a bill of materials (BOM) with links, where you can source the required parts. The complete CNC is build out of CNC milled screen printing wood plates." [...]
"This is Zappette The Robot Clock! Years ago I made Zappo The Robot Clock for my son. Now I needed to make one for my daughter. Zappette is an Arduino microcontroller based, fully functioning alarm clock and MP3 player with many features: - MP3 volume activated LED "ears" using LED bar graphs - Animated LED matrix eyes and mouth - Motion Sensor (PIR) "nose" affects eye animation - Ultrasonic Distance Sensor affects eye animation - Photoresistor for controlling LED brightness based on ambient light - Case LED lights to illuminate the internal boards - Current Time with ambient light brightness control. Blinks ":" for seconds and displays PM as a dot - Red LED "Safety" switch to activate alarm - Two snooze buttons ( when alarm is not active it plays the alarm sound file and displays the alarm time ) - 4 binary switches for picking alarm file. Displayed on 2-digit 7-segment display - Clock/Alarm time set buttons." [...]
"Motto: In Verbis Virtus...(There is power in words) There are many other Word Clock projects here on Instructables and elsewhere on the Internet so it is rather difficult to choose only one project as a source of inspiration because each of them offered me useful ideas. But if I must choose one, it's going to be the one that started all, the beautiful project created by Doug Jackson, presented on Wikifab. Also, I must mention two projects from here, namely: Design and 3D Print an RGB Word Clock by .A. and IKEA Ribba Word Clock by WhiteClockCompany, who influenced my project a lot too. It's hard to bring something new with any future design, but hopefully my project will grab your attention with the fresh and cool ideas inside. What are the pros of my project?" [...]
"I have been fascinated with systems like the Altair 8800 for some time now and decided to up-the-anti with my second iteration of the Digirule by making a programmable binary computer built into a PCB ruler. Luke Drumm (lzcd) has made a fantastic Digirule2 assembler with a ‘virtual walkthrough’ feature for you to write your own assembly programs for the Digirule2. It also converts the assembly language instructions into machine code so you can type it into the Digirule2. check out the Digirule2 assembler HERE. All the other helpful downloads are located at the bottom of this page just before the comments section. The Digirule2 can be likened to a computer similar to the Altair 8800 built into a 20cm ruler." [...]
"The making of a large 3D printer (400x400x400 mm) for a college project. Electrical Components Required - Arduino Mega 2560 x 01 Nos. - Ramps 1.4 controller board x 01 Nos. - Optical endstop switch x 03 Nos. - NEMA 17 stepper motor x 05 Nos. - PCB heatbed x 04 Nos." [...]
"In this tutorial we will learn how to build an Arduino based RC Hovercraft. I will show you the entire process of building it, starting from designing and 3D printing the hovercraft parts, including the propellers, to connecting the electronics components and programming the Arduino. Overview For controlling the hovercraft, I used my DIY Arduino based RC Transmitter which I made in one of my previous videos. I set the right joystick to control the servo motor for positioning the rudders on the back side of the thrust motor, set one of the potentiometers to control the lift propeller which is actually attached on a brushless DC motor, and set the left joystick to control the propulsion. So, let’s take a look what it takes to build this RC hovercraft. " [...]
"The circuit published here is a compact 60V DC-DC Step down Converter that provides 5V DC output and load current up to 3A in compact size. The project is based on LMR16030.The LMR16030 is a 60 V, 3 A SIMPLE SWITCHER® step down regulator with an integrated high-side MOSFET. With a wide input range from 4.3 V to 60 V, it’s suitable for various applications from industrial to automotive for power conditioning from unregulated sources. The regulator’s quiescent current is 40 µA in Sleep-mode, which is suitable for battery powered systems. An ultra-low 1 µA current in shutdown mode can further prolong battery life. A wide adjustable switching frequency range allows either efficiency or external component size to be optimized." [...]
"Use an ESP8266 to control NeoPixels over Wi-Fi like a lightning technician with only free software. To control our LEDs, we will use the Art-Net protocol: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art-Net This protocol transmit DMX lightning protocol thought a network using UDP. It is really fast and compatible with most professional lightning system. " [...]
"I have posted a few different types of home automation tutorials before, but this one is different. Previously we turned on/off appliances with smartphone app or web page. This time we will do same but with our voice using Google Assistant. So you can use your smartphone or Google home to use this. As always I will try my best to explain everything keeping it as simple as possible. The services we will be using are RemoteMe and IFTTT." [...]
"Weather sation based in multiple ESP8266 agents and a Raspberry IOT server based on Docker Weather station based in multiple ESP8266 agents and a Raspberry IOT server based on Docker. Raspberry runs mqtt broker (mosquitto), influxdb (database), grafana (graphics visualizer) and other containers to implement the IOT server. MQTT agent(s) The agent is based in an ESP8266 (a kind of Arduino with WiFi) where to connect and run sensors in modular approach, so this project can easily be used as the foundation for others. MQTT Server (+ other IOT functions) Server is based on a Raspberry, and can be used for any other IOT project. " [...]
"I've got this cool RGB led strip from aliexpress and i want to use it for PC lights. The first problem is hot to control it then how to power him up. This instructable shows you how to do it with github arduino code, working project video and step-by-step guide. " [...]
"$2 for 10PCBs (24 Hour Fast Build): https://jlcpcb.com Hello friends in this video I have made a Mini compact Radar with display, for that I have used HC-SR04 ultrasonic sensor, this sensor emit ultrasonic sound which came back to sensor after reflecting from an object, all the data visualization is displayed on 1.8" ST7735 display, if any object detect by radar it'll show in display in red line. " [...]
"Solar monitoring system measures voltage, current and power from panel, and from two outputs and voltage on battery. This board measure input voltage, current and power from two sources. Board have two outputs. Each have voltage, current and power measuring. Voltage, current and power measure with INA219 board from Adafruit. Input from solar panel is completely isolated from ESP8266 and 5V." [...]
"This instructable explains how to motorize a time lapse rail using a step motor driven by an Arduino. We will mainly focus on the Motion Controller that drives the step motor assuming you already have a rail you want to motorize. For example when dismantling a machine I found two rails that I could convert into time lapse rails. One rail uses a belt to drive the slider and the other a screw. Pictures in this instructable show a screw driven rail but the same principles apply to a rail driven by a belt. There are just a few parameters that require changing during commissioning." [...]
"The goal is to create a device that would allow colorblind people to detect colors without having to see the color. Utilizing the LCD screen with the sensor the color would get picked up then transferred to words onto the LCD screen. This device would hopefully be portable and if anything need to be plugged in from the DC barrel plug or into a laptop/computer through USB. I even would love to push it further to have it completely portable and with a battery clip. The color sensor wires would stick out from the clear housing and be on the outside where as the LCD screen, Arduino, wires, battery are inside the housing. The sensor could be moved around the outside of the housing to pick up different colors from objects." [...]
"There are some examples of 3D printed telegraph keys, but never a complete system until now! This instructable contains all the 3D designs for both the telegraph key and sounder. Goals There are some examples of 3D printed telegraph keys, but never a complete system — until now! In this instructable you can download all the .STL files and print your own telegraph system which can be downloaded on the last step. " [...]
"Surprise visitors in your organization with this Autonomous Tour Guide using the DonkeyCar and Sony's Spresense board! Visitors always feel lost whenever they come for the first time to any large organization with many outdoor buildings. This organization could be anything such as a big company, university, museum or even a hospital. The solution I propose for this problem is an autonomous tour guide using Sony's Spresense and the DonkeyCar. Existing solutions to this problem can be mobile apps or old-fashioned maps. They work, but they aren't as 'flashy' as an automated tour guide on wheels." [...]
"Omni-wheels only have traction in the direction of rotation. This instructable explains how to make an XY plotter from four Omni-wheels, four 28BYJ-48 stepping motors, an Arduino Uno R3 microcontroller, an SG90 servo, and an HC-06 Bluetooth module. Metal-work is simple ... all you need is a screw-driver, three drills, a rat-tail file, and a sharp knife,. The CNC plotter has an on-board interpreter that recognises the g-code output from “Inkscape”. All that is required is an XON XOFF terminal that can send text-files one line at a time. The plotter may also be controlled using a cell-phone or tablet as explained in instructable https://www.instructables.com/id/CNC-Graphics-Tab..." [...]
"This instructable creates a measurement instrument to help analyse RF 433MHz transmissions which are commonly used for low power remote communications in home automation and sensors. It could probably be easily modified to work 315MHz transmissions used in some countries. This would be by using the 315MHz version of the RXB6 instead of the current 433MHz one. The purpose of the instrument is two fold. First, it provides a signal strength meter (RSSI) which can be used to examine coverage around a property and find any black spots. Secondly it can capture clean data from transmitters to allow easier analysis of the data and protocols used by different devices." [...]
"100 WS2812 LEDs driven by a Raspberry Pi Zero in a cylindric shape out of laser cutted parts This is more a test project if a WS2812 based matrix also looks nice in a cylindric shape. I am thinking about a much larger version, but first I want to learn on this small one. I am using the rpi_ws2812 python lib to directly drive the LEDs from the Pi. " [...]
"Today, were involved with SIM800L with M5Stack. This is an ESP32 that is already wrapped and encapsulated with a display. And if you dont know the M5Stack, watch this video: ESP32 M5Stack with DHT22. And todays example already has an SIM800L embedded in it. So with our assembly, it is possible to turn a lamp or fan on and off through an SMS message. And I can send this remotely, as there is no need for any application." [...]
"Hello Here is my another DIY project - simple and low budget remote controlled camera slider with 360 degree Horizontal Panning. This prototype remote slider works with linear forward, backward sliding, horizontal panning with speed control. The materials and parts used are easily available in the market, also basic tools I have used. The advantage of the slider is, the sliding distance can be increase/ decrease to desired distance and can set it up easily for shoot. I spent around Rupees 4000/- ($7) to complete this project. " [...]
"Do you know what motivated humans to create the first-ever city? It's agriculture. In this project, we will make a 3D Printed Flower Pot that could house a small-medium sized plant with an LED display on the outside to indicate the moisture of the soil. " [...]
"In this instructable we will build a unique decoration, which is capable of displaying your current age in days or weeks on a small 4 digit 7 segment display. The whole project is based around an Arduino Pro Mini inside of a picture frame of your choice. Electronics: Arduino Pro Mini 5V (or any other arduino with >= 12 GPIO Pins) 4 Digit 7 Segment Display DS3231 Real Time Clock Module 4x 200 Ohm Resistors Materials: Picture Frame Perf Board (matching size) MicroUSB Breakout (or any other 5-12V power source) Wires/Hardwires Pin Headers (male, female) Tools: Soldering Iron FTDI Programmer (in case of a pro mini)" [...]
That's all Folks!