2016-06-30 - Nº 61
Esta é a Newsletter Nº 61 que se apresenta com o mesmo formato que as anteriores. Se gostar da Newsletter partilhe-a!
Todas as Newsletters encontram-se indexadas no link.
Esta Newsletter tem os seguintes tópicos:
Na Newsletter desta semana apresentamos diversos projetos de maker. Na rubrica "Documentação" apresentamos cinco livros (eBooks) que podem ser descarregados livremente e que esta semana são sobre Scratch - aprender a programar, Preparar e planear uma infraestrutura híbrida de Sharepoint, as dez ferramentas essenciais para o Windows 10, robótica móvel e métricas de "Computer Vision". Esta semana saíram as revistas MagPI nº 47 e newelectronics de 28 de Junho 2016.
Decorreu no passado fim-de-semana a MakerFaire Lisboa e o altLab foi agraciado com um prémio - uma Hello BeePrusa! Agradecemos a toda a organização da feira e a todos os que nos visitaram. Fica aqui em registo o momento em que o prémio nos foi entregue.
João Alves ([email protected])
O conteúdo da Newsletter encontra-se sob a licença Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Novidades da Semana ^
"Wi-Fi Alliance® is expanding Wi-Fi CERTIFIED™ ac to include new features that provide a higher-performance mobility experience. New “wave 2” features enable Wi-Fi® to more efficiently handle high-bandwidth applications from an increasing number of smartphones, tablets, TVs, and other consumer electronics devices simultaneously connected to Wi-Fi networks. Wi-Fi CERTIFIED ac delivers greater network capacity and multi-gigabit speeds to benefit consumers, service providers, and enterprises. Multi-user Multiple Input Multiple Output (MU-MIMO) is among the most anticipated new features of Wi-Fi CERTIFIED ac, allowing more devices to operate simultaneously on the same network without sacrificing speed or performance. In addition to increased network capacity enabled with MU-MIMO, devices supporting the full set of new features are capable of achieving up to three times the speed of devices supporting only original Wi-Fi CERTIFIED ac features. "
"Every year, the world generates more than 2.7 million tons of a plastic , known as polycarbonates, to create common household items, such as CDs, baby bottles, eyeglass lenses and smartphones. Over time, polycarbonates decompose and leach BPA, a chemical that, in 2008, caused retailers to pull plastic baby bottles from store shelves due to concerns about the potential effects of BPA on the brain."
"Espressif announces mass production of the ESP8285 Wi-Fi chip today, adding a new member to Espressif’s Wi-Fi connectivity portfolio. This is a spinoff product of ESP8266, embedded with 1 MByte flash memory and specially designed for wearable devices, such as smartwatches, smart glasses, activity monitors and smart bracelets. According to market research firm IDC, the wearables industry is expected to grow rapidly over the next few years, with unit shipments estimated to exceed 112 million by 2018. Driven by a surging need for flash memory to support the growing range of devices, Espressif has offered a more focused alternative with ESP8285 to meet the demand for smaller PCB size as required in wearable applications. The chip includes an enhanced version of Tensilica’s L106 Diamond series 32-bit processor with flash memory of 1 MByte. Like its predecessor, ESP8285 is a highly integrated Wi-Fi SoC solution that will meet users’ continuous demands for efficient power usage, compact design and reliable performance in the Internet of Things industry."
- Microsemi Announces New Development Kit with RTG4 PROTO FPGAs, Providing Space Designers a Comprehensive Evaluation and Design Platform
- Microchip Launches Lowest Power, Cost-Effective PIC32 Family With Core Independent Peripherals
- New Battery-Charger Chip from STMicroelectronics Reduces Cost and Time-to-Market for Wearable and Portable Applications
- STMicroelectronics Unveils Free and Feature-Rich Simulator to Aid Design for Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
- Nokia launches new IMPACT platform for fast and secure delivery of IoT services
- Intel® Xeon Phi™ Processor Family
- GitHub on BigQuery: Analyze all the code
- World’s First Hermetically Sealed Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitor Now Available through New Yorker Electronics
- Sale of CadSoft
Ciência e Tecnologia ^
"When an airplane begins to move faster than the speed of sound, it creates a shockwave that produces a well-known “boom” of sound. Now, researchers at MIT and elsewhere have discovered a similar process in a sheet of graphene, in which a flow of electric current can, under certain circumstances, exceed the speed of slowed-down light and produce a kind of optical “boom”: an intense, focused beam of light. This entirely new way of converting electricity into visible radiation is highly controllable, fast, and efficient, the researchers say, and could lead to a wide variety of new applications. The work is reported today in the journal Nature Communications, in a paper by two MIT professors — Marin Soljačić, professor of physics; and John Joannopoulos, the Francis Wright Davis Professor of physics — as well as postdoc Ido Kaminer, and six others in Israel, Croatia, and Singapore."
"Astronomers using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), detected a clear signal from oxygen in a galaxy located 13.1 billion light-years away from us. This is the most distant oxygen ever detected. Oxygen in this galaxy seems to be ionized by a number of young giant stars, and this detection is a key step to understand the enigmatic “cosmic reionization” in the early history of the Universe. These observations have opened a new window to probe the early Universe with ALMA."
"Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers, along with a team from UC Santa Cruz (UCSC), have devised a method for doubling the performance of 3-D-printed graphene-based supercapacitors. The method, which involves sandwiching lithium ion and perchlorate ion between layers of graphene in aerogel electrodes, substantially improved the capacity of the electrodes while still maintaining the devices' excellent rate capability, the researchers discovered. Their findings were published online (link is external) and are featured as the back cover for the June edition of the journal ChemNanoMat (link is external)"
A documentação é parte essencial do processo de aprendizagem e a Internet além de artigos interessantes de explorar também tem alguma documentação em formato PDF interessante de ler. Todos os links aqui apresentados são para conteúdo disponibilizado livremente pelo editor do livro.
"Scratch is the world-leading visual programming language, created by the boffins at MIT. It’s designed to help kids of all ages learn about computer science within minutes. We think it’s rather cool, and it’s been a core part of Raspberry Pi’s software offering since day one for very obvious reasons. We’ve been working for a while now to dedicate a new Essentials book to it, and we’re ultra-chuffed to let you know that it’s out now!"
"This book is part of a series to provide readers from all over the world with a guide on how to connect SharePoint on-premises to Microsoft’s cloud services. You will gain insight into planning, architecture, configuration, and management of SharePoint hybrid. This book covers foundational topics with which you will learn more about Office 365 and Microsoft Azure, architecture planning, platform hygiene and preparation, directory synchronization, and how to configure a seamless single sign-on experience for users."
"Dive in to Windows 10 with award-winning journalist and Windows Expert Ed Bott in this highly curated free eBook covering the top apps, accessories, and utilities included in the box with Windows 10. The sheer volume of Windows programs and accessories says a lot about the power and complexity of Windows—a fact that every IT pro knows from firsthand experience. There’s a tool for nearly every task, and a large part of the process of becoming a Windows expert is knowing how to find the appropriate one when you need it. This eBook contains descriptions and hands-on advice to help IT Pros work faster and smarter. Some of these tools are for everybody—end users and experts alike—whereas some are strictly for professionals. A few are so specialized that you’ll only need them once in a blue moon. Collectively, though, they make up a toolbox that can save you (and your company) time and money."
"This set of lectures is about navigating mobile platforms or robots. This is a huge topic and in eight lectures we can only hope to undertake a brief survey. The course is an extension of the B4 estimation course covering topics such as linear and non-linear Kalman Filtering. The estimation part of the lectures is applicable to many areas of engineering not just mobile robotics. However I hope that couching the material in a robotics scenario will make the material compelling and interesting to you."
"Provides an extensive survey and analysis of over 100 current and historical feature description and machine vision methods, with a detailed taxonomy for local, regional and global features. This book provides necessary background to develop intuition about why interest point detectors and feature descriptors actually work, how they are designed, with observations about tuning the methods for achieving robustness and invariance targets for specific applications."
"New Electronics is a fortnightly magazine focusing on technological innovation, news and the latest developments in the electronics sector. Downloadable as a digital page turner or pdf file, or offered as a hard copy, the New Electronics magazine is available in a format to suit you."
"Mission Accomplished: Everything you need to know about Astro Pi and Tim Peake’s time aboard the ISS; Bluetooth tagging: Automate just about anything using your Raspberry Pi 3; Learn to code in C: Our latet expert programming series starts this issue!; Terraform Minecraft: Another brilliant Minecraft-Pi hack; And much, much more!"
Modelos 3D ^
Com a disponibilidade de ferramentas que permitem dar azo a nossa imaginação na criação de peças 3D e espaços como o thingiverse para as publicar, esta rubrica apresenta alguns modelos selecionados que poderão ser úteis.
Introducing my first customizable object for 3D printing
This Customizable Watering Planter is a solution in order to put your lovely plants in your lovely places. Without to be worried about water spills or forgetting to water the plants. It is easy to use: just plant your favorite plant, add some water, and it is all.
This Customizable Watering Planter was designed to be 3D printed with a minimum requirements, but the most important issue is that It is customizable to cover your own space and necessities. It is composed of two parts: the reservoir and the pot. Both were designed with a regular polygon in mind and a customizable feature under a few parameters.
I have only one recommendation: the height should be greater than the radius.
Be free to skip the instructions if you have experience with the setup of 3D parameters, if not, I recommend you to read it.
Prints two hinged pieces in one go, so needs a reasonably good printer. Length can be changed using Customizer.
Works with PLA.
Since the start of my obsession with 3D printing and computer aided design, Motorsports has been on my mind. The Educational Brake Caliper is my first Motorsports related design to be released to the public.
This caliper is based on a race car style brake caliper featuring quick release brake pads and dual pistons. This caliper is FULL SIZED and was modeled off of a Dwarf Car style Race Car.
Instead of uploading a somewhat complicated design to Pinshape and letting you try to figure out what you have, I've opted to include some significant documentation so that this caliper can be shown and used as a hands-on educational piece. The document can be found with the STL files and is labelled, 'EducationalBrakeCaliper-Final.pdf'.
Along with it being based on an educational design, this caliper fits perfectly on a shelf or a desk as a display showing all of its intricacies with the included display stand.
My intent with the documentation provided will be to help you with printing, assembling, understanding, teaching and testing with this caliper. My suggestion would be to have you thumb through the document before starting this print so you have an idea on how it should go. Thank you ☺
Projetos Maker ^
Diversos Projetos interessantes.
" made an IRToWebThingy that reads common (and some not so common) infrared remote control codes and makes them available to any devices on the local WiFi network so you can script various things. For instance, you can fly a pig in Minecraft using a Syma helicopter remote! The Thingy works with usual DVD/TV-type remotes, as well as Great Wolf Lodge Magiquest wands and some IR helicopter remotes."
"Adafruits Bluefruit devices are hands-down the easiest way to get Arduino communicating over a Bluetooth wireless connection. Bluetooth LE is a great way to control a project from a smartphone or tablet. This simplicity could be illustrated with a scrolling LED wall sign that works with your phone or tabletand its easy enough to link up a few 8x8 NeoPixel matrices.but were a little more zany than that. And weve got a thing for wearable electronics. So"
"Hello, everyone ! Today I'm going to show you how to make a contactless OLED thermometer with Arduino UNO and Infrared temp sensor MLX90614 in 5 minutes. This project is very simple, it requires basic programming and electronic skills to make it."
"I am a Biomedical Engineering (BME) graduate student at Purdue University. As a BME, I really enjoy making quick and easy projects that highlight some sort of physiological quantity. Heart rate is such an activity. There are numerous projects that deal with detecting a person's heart beat all over the internet. I wanted to put a little spin on such projects. I have created a heart beat detector that blinks an LED when a heart beat is detected. Oftentimes with these measurements, there is a bit of threshold adjustment that takes place when designing algorithms to calculate heart rate. In many DIY projects I have seen, the threshold is manually determined and is often tuned for each person. In my project, the threshold is automatically tuned so that the circuit does not have to be re-calibrated to each user. Again, pretty simple, but fun. Enjoy!"
"Glucose test strips are expensive (especially in the long run) and each type only works for the meter they are made for. This leads to many people not testing enough, since they can't really afford to. The goal of this project is to produce an accurate blood glucose measuring system that does not require special strips from a single manufacturer. A Universal Glucometer would make it possible to use strips from any manufacturer for any meter so you can use any strips that are available, as well as being free to shop for the best priced strips, without having to buy a new meter."
"I finished this chicken coop in June 2012. It's different from other coops you may have seen because it's controlled by an Arduino Nano micro-controller computer. Why control a chicken coop with a computer? Automating things is my hobby. If you found this blog you're probably have this hobby as well, or else you're just scratching your head... Maybe it was seeing Pee Wee Herman's Breakfast Machine as a kid that got me hooked on the idea of having machines do things for me, but lately I'm doing this because it gives me some time back in my busy schedule that I would normally spend taking care of my pets."
"Insects are everywhere, basically because of its size and ability to reach every corner. In this tutorial it is explained how to make an insect robot."
"If you do not want to purchase the pack CALEIDUINO but you want to make your own digital kaleidoscope for little money, on this page we'll explain how to build you a CALEIDUINO DIY, using recyclable materials such as cardboard, wood and acetate. The kaleidoscope has two parts. The first is the electronic part and the second is the structure and the outer casing."
"In this project we will design and program a smart garden watering system. This system will use Arduino UNO and a moisture sensor to measure the volumetric water content in soil. It will also have a light (photocell) sensor to detect when the plant should get sunlight. So, when the soil is dry a red LED will light up, when its wet a blue LED will light up, and when the plant needs a light a white LED will blink. You will need basic 2D-designing skills and CNC machine to design and build our own planter box. Alternatively, you can just use a normal jar. Also, you can make your planter box using acrylic and cut it by a laser cutting machine."
"NodeMCU and other ESP8266 modules are starting to become very popular because they offer an embedded development platform with a CPU+RAM+Storage+WiFi all in one for (considerably) less than the price of an Arduino. There are a number of breadboard-friendly modules with all pins exposed (and more coming soon.) However, this post is about the breadboard-unfriendly ESP-01 module. It only has two GPIO pins (four if you include the TX & RX pins), but it's smaller and most importantly, cheaper. US vendors tend to charge around $7, but if you don't mind importing, they can be had for $3.50 or less. The biggest problem with the ESP-01 is that it's annoying to wire up and program, so that's what we're solving today."
"This is the simplest fm transmitter circuit you can ever find on internet,because so many simple transmitters (they call it simple but many of them dont work!) on internet will not work as those circuits are designed poorly. i had built around 100s of transmitters in the past and most of them were built successfully, because the design is just cool and reliable. This circuit is for those who have built many fm transmitters without any sign of working!, so try this one and i am sure you can make it!."
"This project is also a Hackaday Prize 2015 entry, which isupdated here. This is still an active project, so the photos dont show the final unit, but should be more informative as you can see the different items I am working on. I am keeping an active project log over at my Hackaday IO page. Frequent readers here will note my fascination with solar power and renewable energy in general. Im a big fan of efficient gadgets too- so I took the chance to update my older Arduino-based solar tracker with a more accurate Raspberry Pi. The original idea was a standalone solar setup that you could use in place of a generator."
"Have you ever wanted to broadcast your own radio station within your neighborhood? Ever get curious on where people get those "Surveillance Bugs" from spy and action movies? This small and simple FM transmitter is the toy that geeks have always wanted. FM transmitters can be complicated to build, that's why I'm teaching you how to make a foolproof FM transmitter. There's no need to buy kits, this tutorial includes the PCB layout and the schematics. It has a range of up to 1/4 mile or more. It's great for room monitoring, baby listening and nature research."
"Why you do this ?" Because it's cool and it makes me feel so nerd. And everyone love nerds!"
"Everybody gets frustrated once in a while and we all have different ways to cope with the stress that comes as a result. One thing we all have in common; we all need some kind of relief from stress. I for one start designing electronics to sort my thoughts and redirect the frustration into something more creative. Incorporating the source of stress into projects, by reflecting it creatively, is a good means to change a negative vibe into a positive vibe. The project here has its origins based on a set of decisions, where most of us simply would shake our heads and say "no, they did not just do that, again, did they?". While a first time (bad) decision calls for a facepalm gesture, the second and any subsequent invocation of the gesture can only be adequately described by the term SNAFU"
"Dark activated LED light is a simple project which operates a LED when the light falling on the LDR goes below a set point. The circuit is built using LM393 comparator, LDR as light sensor, preset (potentiometer) for sensitivity adjustment, transistor to drive the LED. The project can also be considered for use in energy saving application."
"In this instructable I will show you how I made an LED flasher with Knight Rider effect. The circuit is relatively simple. For me the hardest part was etching the PCB."
"Need a tool, build a tool is the mantra I follow. Once more I had a need for this tool. A Ring of Light. I went to the store and the price scared me at my core. I then went to swapmeet and saw a childs toy with all these L.E.Ds . I took it and decided to give it a new purpose. After de-soldering all L.E.Ds i went to my computer and designed a custom PCB. This tutorial uses the Iron Transfer method (which will not be covered here)."
"Take a stroll with Grandaddy OLED the watch and light up the night. Use any of your favorite watchbands to easy connect to the OLED Watch case."
"There are a lot of instructables stating how to make a speaker. Those speaker can be as tall as you and can be as small as your palm. But can you ever imagine that you can make a speaker inside a 9V battery. I know that it sounds weird but it's actually possible. You can make a speaker with decent amount of loudness and intensity inside a 9V battery. The idea of making this tiny speaker came to me from a bunch of old batteries. I had a bunch of old dead batteries lying around and was trying to use them in some way or the other but finally ended up with throwing them in the trash. I took a 9V battery and started thinking what could I make with this thing. Suddenly I got an idea of making a speaker with a 9V battery and rather power the speaker with the battery, I decided to make a speaker inside the battery. Since I had all the required materials and tool, I started making the speaker."
"Version 3 is near complete! Changes include the motor driver PCB I made, 'cleaner' wiring and slightly improved code. Also significant is improved gantry design for ver3. Gantry is less bulky, center of gravity is, well, more centered and overall look fits the machine better. It still needs a few tweaks to get the GT2 belt to fit properly. Powering the machine is a very useful replacement JAMMA PSU. The JAMMA PSU outputs 5V and 12V which is perfect for this machine. In an effort to save time (and avoid painting) I wrapped the wood body panels in red vinyl to give the machine some color. I also tried covering the aluminum rails with acrylic trim. I came across a pile of scrap 0.22 in thick red acrylic, which is what I used, but from a close inspection 0.125" thick trim would be better here. I found a volume knob from a scrapped Roland keyboard, which looks a bit better for the claw control knob. About 1/2 of people think the claw control is a button, so here's hoping the knob looks more like a knob. I also changed the graphics just slightly. The "Instructions" and Start button now are connected by a blue graphic blob. I hope that draws the eyes to both at the same time. Maybe? I have no idea if that will be the effect."
"Would you do with a massive full color animated LED display? How about"
"Rover Robot is the most basic construction that you can build with LOFI Robot EDUBOX kit. Rover is a base for most of other robot constructions such as obstacle avoidance, light following, painting, controlling over bluetooth , etc. LOFI Robot is an educational robot construction kit designed to help young makers and inventors learn basics of coding, electronics and mechanics. LOFI Robot is fully OPEN SOURCE and based on the most popular maker technologies such as ARDUINO and SCRATCH which make it universal maker tool. LOFI Robot allows to build different robots easily and quickly: obstacle bypass, light following, painting, glowing, moving alone or remotely controlled."
"Hi, friends, today i will show how to make buzzer out of relay. Relay is nothing but a switch which is controlled by voltage which we provide. Suppose a relay of 5 volts will act as switch if we provide 5 volts and a little above 5 volts. For this reason it was used as a logic switch in earlier days. In the picture the circuit diagram of relay is shown.Relay is actually single pole double throw(SPDT) switch."
"When you make a project using an Arduino sometimes you need to save/load data, but SD card readers can be pricey so in this tutorial I will show you how to make one for under R70 or roughly $5. Most part are easy to come by ,and some can be salvaged."
"So to begin with, for this instructable you don't need to follow everything correctly. You can adjust everything as you want. Also this is not reactive to Tempature, the sensor detects flames by IR."
"This instructable is a brain child that I just had to share with the world. Bad air quality causes various health problems and purification solutions are often complex and expensive. The solution is an open source no nonsense air purifier: the OPEN AIR! This instructable is based on my first experimental prototype of the OPEN AIR."
"Have you ever seen Passcode lock system in some office and in some homes, its really interesting and cool right ! .It will make our home secure and smart i mean automated.it is a small part of home automation. I'am also saw one in my neighbour's house. He bought it few days ago. he used to control his children from watching TV. I also really need one but not going to buy."
"This instructables show how to test ESP board on bread board without soldering, especially for ESP-07 and ESP-12(E) and may be ESP-03. ESP board most require 2 mm pitch connector but most bread board are 2.54 mm pitch, It need some tricks on connect between ESP board and bread board."
"Frequently I will install a control system to later find out --it doesn't work or work properly. Have you been there? My aim with this project is to find those anomalies and "gotcha's" before the first wire is connected to anything. That is the beauty of the Arduino Mega 2560 --lots of pins and you can simply hang a LED on any pin to see if the circuit is controlling as it should. I really like that. No smokedparts!!!"
"This is a discrete Half-bridge driver based on IR2104 gate driver IC and low impedance high current N channel IRFP4368 MOSFETS. The IR2104 is a high voltage, high speed power MOSFET driver with independent high and low side referenced output channels. HVIC and latch immune CMOS technologies enable ruggedized monolithic construction. The logic input is compatible with standard COMOS or LSTTL output, down to 3.3V logic. A gate IR2104 driver is a power amplifier that accepts a low-power input from a controller IC and produces a high-current drive input for the gate of a high-power transistor such as a power MOSFET. In essence, a gate driver consists of a level shifter in combination with an amplifier. This drive has many application, ranging from DC-DC power supply for high power density and efficiency, This project simplifies the design of control systems for a wide range of motor applications such as home appliances, industrial drives, DC brushed motors , Brushless motors, fans, Tesla Coil driver, Induction coil driver, LED driver, Halogen Lamp driver."
"Grunting Racket is a tennis racket that sounds pro tennis players grunting when you swing it. You can select one of the four primary active grunters, Serena, Sharapova, Djokovic, and Nadal."
"An Arduino Uno is a really cool piece of hardware to get started with electronics, but one downside to the Arduino is it needs to be plugged into computer using a serial to USB cable each time you want to upload the code. In some projects it would be really handy to program the Arduino wireless, so in this instructable I'm going to show you how to program an Arudino wireless over Bluetooth, so you don't have to carry an extra USB cable again or unplug the Arduino from the project just to upload the new code."
"Today in this instructable we are going to make a Diy 5 volt power supply module for just 3$. cheap right !!! Not only cheap It is also simple to make . you can use this simple power supply module for arduino , sensors and breadboard. The reason i come up with this tutorial is , yesterday me and my friend working with a arduino project, he is absolute beginner to maker culture. so its my duty to teach him everything . when we completed our project we needed two 5 volt power supply module , i had only one i give it to him and made one myself with in 15 minute ."
"Most of my Instructables are based on renewable energy,battery or recycling used materials.In this Instructable, I have tried something new i.e making a simple Arduino based robot car.This is my first try to make a robot in my life. If you have never tried to make robot, you must be thinking its a difficult hobby to jump into, but the Arduino and the 2WD / 4WD Robot Chassis make it easy for you to build an awesome robot without any struggle. I always love to share my knowledge learned from my experience.So writing this guide, it will make easy for you to learn the basics of robotics and applications of the Arduino."
"This project is a programmable encoder because its functionality depends on an Arduino Uno and its suitable code. Since the project is an encoder generates the numbers from 0 - 9, it'll also need a common cathode display and some switches for showing its practical use."
"Now we are making automatic watering plant. I use .5 KW motor which can operate only one sprinkler at a time. so i use this method which give me positive result"
"I always wanted to build a 3 DOF arm that can be controlled with its copy. With the Arduino & 3D printing it was pretty easy. I hope you can easily built this robot by following these 8 steps. Please don't forget the watch and share demo video that I record for you guys."
"Uma bobinadeira um equipamento empregado na rea de eletroeletrnica (tambm em outras reas, como a txtil), que pode ser mecnico ou eletromecnico, com ou sem controle automatizado, que permite enrolar um determinado nmero de espiras de fio em um carretel ou frma, produzindo uma bobina. Por sua vez, bobinas so dispositivos eltricos, comumente empregados em transformadores, geradores, motores, solenides, rels, choques de RF (Rdio Frequncia), reatores, eletroms e indutores de forma geral."
"If you finish make charger, power bank, or any device for charging. You need to check the output voltage to use it, if the output voltage is too high or too low? you need this tools."
That's all Folks!